Sabtu, 26 Juni 2010
It’s common, when you buy a durian fruit (Durio zibethinus Murr.) on the roadside fruit sellers, then the available varieties with diverse tastes. Popularity, purchasing five then you will find five different flavors, except if you make a “dodol durian” or sweet cake (pulp of durian mixed with sticky rice and coconut milk) or cooked with coconut milk and pieces of banana into durian compote; the so-called “kolak durian”. But the durian is the king of fruit ... even though non-Asian people do not like the smell that stung. Therefore, for consumers in Japan by Thai entrepreneurs of durian fruit is processed into dry snacks and odorless. In addition to coated seeds eaten, durian trees are used for environmental conservation by reducing soil erosion; skin of the fruit is used as charcoal or mixtures as media for growing crops; the roots, leaves and fruit skin can be used also as a medicine (Tjitrosoepomo, 1952; Heyne, 1987; Rismunandar, 1986; Suhardi, 2002). Durian main stem used as wood for building materials - are among the Dayak communities in East Kalimantan are classified as second-class quality of timber.
Buy five and … your will get five different tastes..! Will be replaced by mono-taste in 2015… Durian and mangosteen.. transgenic
Riza V. Tjahjadi
Indonesia is the center of origin of durian in the world. Kostermans in 1958 reported distribution of 27 species of Durio: 18 in Kalimantan, 11 in the Malay Peninsula, and seven in Sumatera. Result study of the herbarium collections at the Bogor Botanical Gardens in Indonesia indicate that there are at least 20 types of Durio: 18 in Kalimantan, Sumatra 7 , and one each in Jawa, Bali, Sulawesi, and Maluku (Germplasm Bulletin 11:28-33, 2005). Year 2008 acquired two new varieties of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) were durian “tanpa sekat” alias durian partition-off, and durian “gundul” or durian without thorns or spikes (see: second pic; right). "The first one is a durian without the bulkhead." Shaped like a durian ordinary. But, when cut and open, the meat is thicker because it was not sectional, "said Reza. The contents of the second package were more exotic. The fruit was likely a big breadfruit. But, when it opened, it was seen durian flesh yellowish."They were sweet, savory, and delicious," said Reza Tirtawinata, the head of Laboratory Research Division of PT Mekar Unggul Sari, who manages the Nature Trail Mekarsari in Jonggol in the region of Bogor Regency ... At this time, both two samples of a unique durian that is being developed in the laboratory of Mekarsari. "Now, these two durian varieties are in the process release of varieties to be recognized as national varieties, "said Reza Tirtawinata to Syamsul Hidayat, a news-reporter of Gatra weekly magazine (Gatra No. 30 Thursday, June 5, 2008).
Mangosteen is a fruit of a tree crop that comes from tropical rain forests in Southeast Asia, the jungles of Malaysia or Indonesia. From Southeast Asia, this plant spread to Central America region and other tropical regions such as Sri Lanka, Malagasy Republic, the Caribbean, Hawaii, and northern Australia. Center for tree planting or Garnicia mangostana mangosteen is East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, West Jawa (Jasinga, Ciamis, Wanayasa), West Sumatra, North Sumatra, Riau, East Java and North Sulawesi.
Mangosteen fruit eaten fresh, but can also be expressed in the form of fresh, canned fruit, make the syrup / juice. Traditionally, mangosteen fruit is a cure canker sores, hemorrhoids and wounds. Recently many companies are interested in processing the mangosteen, so that could practically consumed by people. Mangosteen is a nutritious fruit commodity for health and beauty because it has antioxidants that capture free radicals and prevent cell damaged thus hampered the process of cell degeneration. Not just the meat that the mangosteen fruit rich in vitamin C, 66 mg, but also the efficacy of multi skin anticancer, antioxidant, efficacious overcome coronary heart disease, HIV, etc. (mrceko on 20 May 2010). Mangosteen, the skin can be used also as a substance natural dying. Endang Kwartiningsih et all. (2009) examine the potential for mangosteen rind.
The peel of mangosteen contains antosianin and tannin pigment. It was extracted in soxhlet equipment and in a stirred tank by ethanol as solvent. The next processing were distillation, crystallization and drying. In a stirred tank the temperature was done between
30-70 C degree with 10 C degree interval. The higher temperature, the higher dyes result at the same time. The process produced 19.45 % dyes powder by soxhlet equipment and 13.15 % by stirred tank at 70 oC. Then the dyes powder was tested in colouring and colour fading to the white cloth by laundrymeter and crockmeter. The colour fading test for laundrying showed that the grey scale value and the stainning scale value were 2-3 (less). But the colour fading test for polishing showed that the stainning scale value were 3-4 (good enough) for dry polishing and 3 (enough) for wet polishing (Endang Kwartiningsih et all. 2009)
In traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, the mangosteen fruit and its skin has been used for several centuries. Meanwhile, scientifically proven on laboratory mice who consumed the mangosteen juice is equivalent to three liters, if in humans, no tissue damage whatsoever. From the results of an investigation, the original fruit of Southeast Asia can produce Xanthone, ie substances that are formed from the isolated skin of the mangosteen fruit. Levels reached 123.97 mg per ml. Xanthone have antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity. Xanthone research began in 1970 and until now has been found in more than 40 types of Xanthone, among which are alpha-mangostin and gamma mangostin which is believed to have the ability to prevent various diseases. Both types Xanthone can help stop inflammation (inflammation) production by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme that causes inflammation (mrceko on 20 May 2010),
Production of durian and mangosteen, according to the Agriculture Sector Development Performance, published by the Ministry of Agriculture in 2008 spelled out small when compared with other fruits in the period 2004-2007. Largest production in the year 2007 (figures prognosis) sequentially from the largest number of commodities other fruits (5.78068 million tons), bananas (5.26644 million tons), citrus (2.85961 million tons), mango (1.72503 million tons) , durian (792.9 thousand tons), papaya (671 040 tons), and avocado (256 660 tons). It is probable that a part of the mangosteen fruit other commodities. The durian and bananas which are both centers of origin in Indonesia, was very much difference in production: banana was ranked second, while the durian was ranked fifth. Then, it's not surprising Research and Development Agency Ministry of Agriculture has a research agenda for the development of transgenic durian and mangosteen. Two Indonesian tropical fruits together with some food crops that is wheat, corn, rice soybeans are part of the development of agricultural biotechnology in the period 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Agriculture; an excerpt from the Draft Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Agriculture (see: first pic, left)
184.108.40.206 REVITALISATION SEEDS AND SEEDLING
The availability of seeds and cultivation aspects seed represents something that is very fundamental. The combination of fertile land with the seeds / seedlings will produce superior / delivery of superior production. Historically the role of the seed has been proven at the time of success in increasing production in the era of Green Revolution in the year 1960, and the success of self-sufficiency in rice and maize, which has recently achieved, among others, also because of the use of superior seeds. Therefore, to achieve and maintain sustainable food self-sufficiency, the device of seed crops must strong. As to improve seed device the efforts that need to be done are: 1) Restructure the national seed institution ranging from central to local levels. 2) Protect, preserve and make use of national genetic resources for the development of local varieties. 3) Encourage private sector to participate in business development seed. 4) Strengthen the glorification of labor force in various strata / level of education. 5) Developing a breeder-seed breeder at the field level 6) Multiplying/ extensify seed sources from both local sources and from abroad. 7) The application of the law of seed.
220.127.116.11 REVITALISATION TECHNOLOGY AND UPSTREAM INDUSTRY
Things to do in order to revitalize the technology and downstream industries are: 1). Increasing research activities particularly in the context of the creation of technological innovation seeds, seedlings, fertiliser, veterinary medicines and plant, machinery and processed food products as well as utilisation of land resources and water. Ministry of Agriculture to come will focus on efforts to produce: (a) seeds, seed, fertiliser, veterinary medicines and plant, machinery and processed food products that suit their needs and field conditions, (b) agricultural resource management, technological innovation, (c) recommendations agricultural policy, (d) research on pest control that effective but environmentally friendly, and (e) adoption of innovative technology research and development. Agriculture Ministry will also continue to develop innovative agricultural technology, agricultural development policy formulation that is anticipatory and responsive, and various models of institutional cooperation between businessmen to distribute proportionately technology incentives within the framework of an industrial agricultural system. Network of national and international cooperation in the framework Science and technology or agricultural innovation will continue to be developed. Research and Development Agency will prepare a recommendation technologies, especially the cultivation technologies associated with climate change and the implementation of sound agricultural practices of environmental sustainability
In the presentation of the National Priority 5: Food Security by Deputy Natural Resources and Environment of Bappenas, the national planning Agency, with topic on the national Priority Work Planning or RKP MUSRENBANGNAS in 2011 in Jakarta on 28 April to 1 May 2010 said Priority Activities for Research and development of food crops is to increase food crops technology innovations to support food security and food resilience that includes rice, cereals, nuts and tubers.
This is one of the seven principal as the elaboration of policy direction from the National Priority 5: Food Security from 2010 to 2014 of the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN), no: ... 3. Provision of seed and support the development of downstream industries of agriculture and fisheries research and development results of innovation.
The target in the year 2011: 1) The number of new varieties 5; 2) The number of farming technology, harvesting and post harvest primers 5; 3) The number of accessions resources system (PGR) identified, the collected and conserved the nature of the 800 crop varieties; 4) Total seed production source (Basic Seeds or BS, Foundation Seeds or FS) of rice, cereals, nuts and tubers to the ISO 9001-2000 QMS is BS 10 tons FS 20 tons, and 5) The number of research consortium on rice, soybeans, and wheat as much as two researches. Total budget for the budget year 2011 amounted to 103.43 billion rupiah (Bappenas, 2010: MUSRENBANGNAS RKP 2011 Jakarta April 28 to May 1, 2010). Estimation for exchange rate 2011, 1US$ = Rp 9.200.
The National Priority 5: Food Security 2010-2014 Bappenas also mention LIPI, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences is in its institutions related to molecular biology: In no .. 3. mentioned, that the provision of seed and support the development of downstream industries of agriculture and fisheries research and development results of innovation, the No. column. 2. Infrastucture, point: c. Development and maintenance of communications technology and a national information system that serves the areas of agricultural production centers to improve the quantity and quality of production and marketing capabilities, listed No. 13 R & D for superior seeds with Molecular Biology of Seed with target are seed-based molecular biology. Year 2011 target set amount to two varieties of crop seeds. Allocation of budget funds amounting to 5 billion rupiah.
Wheat, research since 1983
Japan has developed a wheat crop in Indonesia. This plant developed in the area Nongko Parallelograms (East Jawa) and Kopeng, Salatiga (Central Jawa). To develop this plant, the Japanese cooperate with the Satya Wacana Christian University (SWCU) Salatiga, who has long been doing research about plants that can only be known a normal life in the sub-tropical regions. "This is still in the pilot project stage. But the planting area reached 300 hectares. In Kopeng 150 hectares and 150 hectares in Nongko Jajar," said Franciscus Welirang CEO PT Bogasari Flour Mills in sideline of a Seminar on the Role of Interior Design in Bakery Business Jakarta, Wednesday (03/18/2009). Franciscus Welirang, adding to develop this plant, the Japanese side has disbursed funds to Rp2 billion for the pilot project with the pilot. Franky denied when it is said the wheat crop is not suitable planted in Indonesia, since Indonesia is a tropical region. "Not true, because many farmers we've been planting wheat. And most of the harvests are merely for their own consumption. Moreover, in this project, Japan and SWCU already have the technology to project the development of this wheat," said Franciscus Welirang a son in law of Salim Sudono the conglomerate during the Soeharto regime (Okezone, March 18, 2009 )
History record, however, the study of plant mutation breeding in wheat was conducted by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) began in 1983. At first, plant mutation breeding expert from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries the seeds of two varieties of wheat CIMMYT tropical Mexican origin, namely Sonalika and SA-75. Early research was on radiosensitivity of wheat crop from Gamma-ray for further breeding purposes.
In 1984, research was continued with more in-depth study of plant resistance to diseases of wheat rust (Puccinia striiformis), in cooperation with the Agricultural University of Norway. The results in the form of mutation breeding mutant strains (mutant lines) were tested in the field of wheat began with highland agroecosystem conditions (800-1200 m asl) cool temperate seas in Cipanas, West Jawa in 1992-1994. In that study, a number of promising lines have been generated and reported (Soeranto, 1997). Due to the policies the Ministry of Agriculture, then, research on wheat crop in BATAN can be not continued in 1995. However, mutant strains of seed wheat, which has produced remains safe and neatly stored in a cold room.
In 2001, wheat breeding research collaboration between BATAN and PT Flour Mills began to be carried out with the signing of the MOU dated August 31, 2001. Cooperation activities began with the renovation and seed propagation of mutant strains that have been stored relatively long time in BATAN. Among the wheat mutant lines, the CPN-1 mutant strains (Son10-1) and CPN-2 (SA10-22) still has the vigor and ability to grow pretty well, so that both mutant lines are immediately regenerated and multiplied his seed.
Concurrently, PT Bogasari submitted seeds of three varieties of wheat from CIMMYT namely Punjab 81 (Acc. No. BW8623), WL2265 (Acc. No. BW11096), and SA-75 (Acc. No. BW 6277), each with very limited number of seeds, to be further investigated in BATAN. Rejuvenation and multiplication of seeds of wheat field experiment was conducted in ICRP Padarincang located in the highlands of Cipanas West Jawa with an altitude of about 800 m asl.
Research on plant mutation breeding wheat in ICRP received technical support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (International Atomic Energy Agency) through Project RAS/5/040 IAEA. This collaborative research project pursued to collect plant mutation breeding wheat for Asian countries (Indonesia, India, Pakistan, China, Thailand, and Korea). In a meeting in Beijing, China December 18 to 22 March 2002, all member countries agreed to undertake exchange cooperation seed mutant strains of wheat, then to be further investigated in each participating country. Accordingly, Indonesia has received three kinds of mutant seeds of wheat from China and four kinds of mutant wheat from Pakistan (www.batan.go.id).
more on transgenic
Senin, 24 Mei 2010 10:36 WIB | Iptek | Sains | Dibaca 463 kali
Numerous studies of genetic engineering of food crops in negotiating changes in a drier climate in the future have been started Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), for example on cassava plants or mannihot esculenta. `For example phytoenesynthase coding gene (Psy) involved in the biosynthesis of beta-carotene in cassava been identified and are in-sequence for confirmation, `said a researcher at LIPI puslit Biotekologi Prof. Dr. Enny Sudarmonowati recently confirmed as a research professor by LIPI in Jakarta, Monday.
Genes obtained will be reintroduced to the cassava crop through genetic transformation techniques have been mastered so hopefully no longer have trouble in the future, Enny said.
Beta carotene thought to correlate with resistance to drought, he said, already can be improved in such research. Efforts to produce cassava containing high amylose content is also being carried out, Enny said, even the effort to produce cassava with lower amylose had reached the field is limited to test fifth
Efforts to produce cassava containing high amylose content is also being carried out, Enny said, even the effort to produce cassava with lower amylase. With limited field testing we've arrived the fifth generation and this is the first Indonesia transgenic variety of cassava in the world.
Amylose amylopectin starch component in addition to the natural composition is 20 percent to 80 percent amylose and amylopectin to. "amylose if the reduced rates would be better for the processing of paper and textile industries because of its processing easier. In LIPI amilosa proven content can be reduced so only two to three percent of the natural 20 percent by this GMO, "he said.
While high amylose content (low amylopectin) is required for food industries, particularly food for people who have problems with digestion and to drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, he added.
The study of biotechnology for cassava post-harvest according to him has also been carried out, such as to increase the shelf after the harvest period of five days was increased to 12 days. Biofortification addition (adding nutrients to the plants) has also been done on cassava was like entering the iron and zinc, Enny added (www.biotek.lipi.go.id).
Albazia Falcataria transgenic, the first in the world
Jumat, 21 Mei 2010 22:15 WIB | Iptek | Teknologi | Dibaca 1447 kali
Limited Test Facility Center for Biotechnology Research Indonesian Institute of Sciences (of LIPI) has produced a wood tree, named sengon (Albazia Falcataria). The world's first transgenic. "Insertion xyloglucanase gene has been successfully carried into the plant paraserianthes," said Dr. Biotechnology Expert. Enny Sudarmonowati LIPI confirmed after he became Professor of Research in Jakarta, Friday afternoon.
Sengon transgenic plants containing genes xyloglucanase proven to grow faster and contain cellulose higher than control plants in the Limited Test Facility (FUT) and therefore they have to grow more quickly when moved from the FUT to field, he said. Wood sengon economic value that is used for house building poles, container boards, furniture, fence, until the pulp and paper. On the other side also has a strong advantage of the main roots so well planted on the edge of the erosion-prone areas and became one of the government’ policy (Sengonisasi) around watersheds (DAS).
With the insertion of the gene sengon plants is also easier to produce ethanol, hydrolyzed and higher, he said. "Genes have been cloned from sengon ie sucrose synthase and gene encoding 4-CL lignin will be transformed further, "he said.
Other woodtrees has been tested in transgenic plants also in the country is Acasia mangium cellulose-containing gene and can produce more sugar as well as teak (Tectona grandis) is inserted gene LEAFY aimed enlargement of the stem.
Indonesia, he said, very behind in transgenic research in the forestry sector, even until now there has not been tested to the limited field, from the previous stage was tested in the laboratory and tested in the FUT. He also explained, the results of genetic engineering of plants is now more and more utilized, where in 2009 the number of countries that have commercial planting of transgenic crops are 25 countries with 800 million hectares of area. "For the time being still dominated by agricultural crops such as corn, soybeans and cotton, with a gene for resistance to insects and nature of herbicides, with the state the most developed transgenic is the United States, "he said.
Source: LKBN Antara news agency (also: www.biotek.lipi.go.id).
LIPI Transgenic Sengon
Seed Production Process Sengon Encapsulation Method of Tissue Culture Results
NO REGISTRATION P00200400517 P00200400517
Date REGISTRATION 2004-10-13 2004-10-13
This invention related to seed production process sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) using encapsulation of shoot sengon tissue culture results.
Inventor NAME Dr. Dr. Enny Sudarmonowati Enny Sudarmonowati
Prof. Prof. Dr. Dr. Ir. Ir. Bambang Prasetya. Bambang Prasetya. AU20000066690D 20001024. AU20000066690D 20,001,024. Process for production of perlite fiber composite from expanded perlite biomass fiber and SBP-X1 glue Process for production of composite fiber perlite expanded perlite from biomass fiber and glue SBP-X1
(Wednesday, 26 May 2010 07:44 Saturday, 26 May 2010 07:44)
contact us: email@example.com
Selasa, 15 Juni 2010
With part of total the Indonesia Farmer’s Fund (IFF), two training centers for African farmers have been constructed Indonesia - one in Morogoro Tanzania (eastern region) and one in The Jenoi Lower River Division Gambia (west) ... Total IFF reached Rp 16,964,710,410 and more than half of the fund has had submitted to Edouard Souma, director general FAO amounted U.S. $ 7 billion… Around 72 projects within 24 African countries received technical assistance by the Indonesian farmers (1987-2003)…
“Legowo” (feel relieved or space; this model traditionally practices mostly by farmers in Central Jawa, using plant spacing with space 12,5 cm within row and 25 cm inter row spacing widened).
African century, the new frontier of the global economy
Indonesia preparing a Roadmap for cooperation with Africa; needs broader participation, benchmarking
Riza V. Tjahjadi
Can inter-state cooperation in bilateral, or trilateral offset (as counter discourse) against the regime AGRA, the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa? How is the view among bureaucrats, and agricultural analyst for AGRA? To AGRA, how we react to it? Is regarded as competitors or as partners? In the context of how? How is the performance of cooperation between Indonesia and Africa, when viewed within the framework of south-south cooperation?
This is some of my main questions in the forum of questions and answers on the speakers in the symposium entitled Record-tracks and projection on Agriculture Indonesia-Africa held by the Directorate Africa of the Directorate General of Asia Pacific and Africa of the Ministry of Foreign Affair in Bogor of West Jawa, 10 June 2010. AGRA, Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa chaired by Kofi Anan, former UN-Secretary General; AGRA funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, maintains offices in Nairobi, Kenya and Accra, Ghana and Rockefeller Foundation and the World Bank.
Makarim Wibisono, a former president of G77 at the United Nations (UN) in 1998, former permanent representative to the RI at the United Nations, and former Director General of the Asia & Pacific, in his presentation also in its presentation of HS. Dillon & MS. Dillon of Center for Agriculture Policy Studies in his presentation: Towards MDGs, Indonesia-African Cooperation in Food Security did not put dimensions AGRA and its maneuvers. But responding to question potential funding for RI and African cooperation, according Makarim will not be referring to the sources of funds AGRA. This can be seen, that the RI-Africa cooperation in parallel with AGRA. Instead of M.S. Dillon suggest the need for cooperation with AGRA, but in the context of Indonesia needs to learn how to manage funding, and so forth. My impression, these two resource persons failed to identify AGRA and its maneuvers in the context of Africa - while among international civil society Organisations (CSOs) AGRA has been criticized since 2002 ago.
Makarim Wibisono, who also has had served as Chairman of the UN ECOSOC, in his presentation titled Flashbacks Indonesian-African Relations in historical setting include the existence of the Indonesian community in South Africa and Madagascar as well as the Java Museum in Ghana. Ten precepts of
Makarim stated Indonesia-Africa cooperation has good prospects, because the 21st century is the African Century, the new frontier of the global economy. Besides Indonesia, Africa will have experience dealing with the monetary crisis Indonesia and Africa are part of the system, namely the Non-Aligned Movement, the G-77, OIC, the South Summit. Moreover the export and import relationships have had already established in the trade.
Citing data UNTACD, Makarim declare investment to developing and transition economies surged, increasing in on their share in the global FDI flows to 63% in 2008. Partly this was due to a concurrent large decline in FDI to developed countries (29%). For example, Malaysian plantation companies, namely Sime Darby has been invested this year in
Obstacles in Indonesia-Africa cooperation is to export the same products, same destination, different business systems, and different payment schemes - Africa, Europe-oriented system. Equation agricultural export products include Commodities, fishery products, mining and handicraft. The export destinations are the United States, Europe, Japan and China.
Technical cooperation of Indonesia and African countries started when Indonesia achieved self-sufficiency in rice in 1984. African countries at the moment there are still millions of people living in poverty and food shortages. According a special staff of minister of agriculture for overseeing the inter-institutions cooperation and foreign affair, Indonesia was pioneered by the Indonesian Agricultural Society (or Yampi, Indonesian Farmers' Society Charitable Foundation) from 27 provinces which formed the Indonesia Farmer’s Fund (IFF) move to give a donation of food - which is symbolically given by President Soeharto to the director general of FAO at its annual session XXIII, which coincides with the anniversary of the UN-FAO to-40 on 14 November 1984. As to remember, President Suharto and the
According Syamsuddyn Abbas of Yampi total IFF collected from the Indonesian farmers reached Rp 16,964,710,410 by 30 July 1994, and more than half of the fund has had submitted to Edouard Souma, director general FAO amounted U.S. $ 7 billion. Yampi listed around 72 projects within 24 countries - almost half of total the countries in Africa - received technical assistance by the Indonesian farmers between 1987 and 2003; see, also: Daniel Shallon et all (2003) Lesson Learned From The Activities of The Indonesian Farmer’s Fund in Africa, 1985-2003. FAO.
According a special staff of minister of agriculture for overseeing the inter-institutions cooperation and foreign affair, the agricultural cooperation with African countries since 1985 until today covers 15 countries:
Indonesia, then, also developed two training centers as Rural Agricultural Development Training Center (P4S) with funds of Yampi (Indonesian Farmers' Society Charitable Foundation) in Gambia to provide a facility to farmers in the west region of Africa and in Morogoro Tanzania for for farmers in eastern Africa. P4S is a set of multipurpose building, provided with motor vehicles, means of education and training, and pump water.
Other forms, was the assistance of agricultural equipment since 1995 until 2007 is a hand tractors, hoes, rice milling machines, scythes, and seeds of rice to Gambia. Tanzania: hand tractor and water pumps, Sudan: Hand tractors and water pumps. Joint Research and technology was supporting R&D in the technical development of natural pararubber for Ethiopia (R & D of the ministry of agriculture of Indonesia and the privatisation and public enterprises, supervising Authority, the National Nucleus Project), exchange of germplasm of coconut palm with Cameroon, and which in on-going process is the exchange palm germplasm with Angola. Stages in the joint R & D since 2006, namely comparative studies, technical training, and joint exploration.
Until now, there are five of the MOUs, namely the countries of Ethiopia, Gambia, Cameroon, Tanzania, and South Africa. MOU on agriculture in general were the Gambia, Tanzania, and South Africa. MOU on oil palm, especially the exchange of germplasm with Cameroon, the MOU on the rubber with Ethiopia. Meanwhile, about agricultural MOU have been agreed together with Nigeria, scheduled to be signed by the minister of agriculture of both countries at the D8 Summit in September 2010. Other agricultural MOU with Namibia – the legal text has been submitted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Government of Namibia.
Cooperation within the framework of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) / South-South cooperation since the 1980s has been realized by the Indonesian government, especially Yampi and the Ministry of Agriculture which endorsed by the state secretariat, and the ministry of foreign affairs as well as donor country, such as JICA. This cooperation now covering 50 countries in the Asia-Africa, among them 15 African countries, 20 countries in Asia, the Middle East four countries, eight Pacific countries, and three countries in the region America.
Agricultural situation in Africa is widely known as a dry climate, but actually a very big agricultural potential of Africa to meet the food needs of its inhabitants - which amounts to 823 million people. According to Director of Food Industry Ministry of Industry RI, less advanced in the agricultural sector in Africa due to lack of skilled skill labor, and only 7 percent of the total paddy fields that have irrigation, the remaining 93 percent rely on rainfall for irrigation. He added that in 2003 Indonesia's total exports to Africa reached U.S. $ 1 billion, and in 2007 reached U.S. $ 2.3 billion. Indonesia's import from Africa - without the year and the value of imports - consisting of cotton, aluminum, copper, cotton, pulp, chemicals, tobacco, and organic acids.
Dr. RM Dewabroto, Director for Multilateral Foreign Funding of the National Planning Board (Bappenas) is necessary shortening import chain. Cotton, for example, imports from Africa to
Africa is a huge market potential - with the huge population - have an interest in consumer taste products that are almost similar to the basic needs of Indonesian people. Some brands which are already well known by the Africans is the product of Wings, Indofood, and others. Potential of Indonesia's exports to Egypt are palm oil, and rice. Egypt was ranked 27 countries on the export destination of Indonesia. Potential of the Indonesian market to South Africa - which has close ethnic and Moslem community since 100 years ago - including the oil industry, agro-industry (coffee, tea, soaps, etc.), crude palm oil, canned food products and other processed food. The export products: Indonesia's exports to Algeria is mainly agricultural commodities: coffee, palm oil, and other agricultural products. Nigeria is the largest export market in west region of Africa, consisting of instant noodles, processed foods and beverages, and butter. Indonesian instant noodle product in Nigeria has 30 million consumers. This is Indonesia's largest investment in west part of Africa.
Makarim Wibisono suggest - as the key word - for the development of Indonesia-Africa cooperation is to develop a road map. Road map to the RI-strong African Agricultural Cooperation Covers seminars, discussions and symposiums Engaging all stakeholders, identification of strategic Steps to be taken Poor 'business links, Also the second track approach. He added planning and a focused program in enhancing bilateral relations beyond agricultural sector in
Within the broader framework according to Dr. RM Dewabroto Director for Multilateral Foreign Funding of Bappenas there was a road map of South-South Cooperation with timeline 2009 until 2014. Historically marked by the participation of the Government of Indonesia in South-South Cooperation has been started in Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung (1955), then, Non-Alignment Movement in Jakarta with the recommendation to established Non-Alignment Movement Centre (1992), and Host of Bali D-8 Conference (2006), and other several projects and activities related to South-South Cooperation both through bilateral or triangular cooperation.
Furthermore, Makarim Wibisono emphasised a few things, namely the need of a formal statement from RI-1 or RI-2 (meaning an official statement from the President or Vice President of
Regarding South-South technical cooperation Non-Aligned Movement (KSS-KTNB) Fahrul Rozi, a staff of technical Cooperation Bureau for Foreign Affairs of the Secretariat of State Indonesia has received funds from
He suggested also some other thing, that Indonesia will strengthen burden-sharing mechanism (the State grantee share in the cost of implementation of cooperation activities), needed to do mapping needs of African countries which will be designed by representatives of Indonesia cooperation in the country, and the private sector and state mapping (state enterprises) which have and will invest, and engage Kadin (the Indonesian chamber of commerce& Industry). Finally, he suggested that
Discussing aid or grants, a woman former RI ambassador to the Scandinavian region suggests that African countries have already overloaded with international assistance related to the MDGs. Scandinavian countries are forming more strategic partnerships to allocate greater funds to Africa, and impact aid for Indonesia is greatly reduced. So, we should be careful in the matter of funding for foreign cooperation. The reason is because
Rabu, 09 Juni 2010
A Cuban Model slower, organic farming – Indonesia
Review to state budget 2010, the first quarter (from APBN 2010 to APBN-P 2010)
Riza V. Tjahjadi
The government's ambitious targets for the development of organic agriculture, it turns out, losing faster than the reality of the absorption of chemical fertiliser subsidies. Urea fertiliser is the fastest and largest in the absorption of fertiliser subsidy in the state budget in the first quarter 2010; was followed by absorption of SP-36 fertiliser, and ZA. Organic fertilisers instead reached only about a third of the target; see table: Fertiliser’s subsidy by March 2010 yet absorbed or SUBSIDI PUPUK S/D MARET 2010 (TIDAK TERSERAP). For information, the first quarter of implementation of the 2010 state budget was the planting season in most of rice fields in the country. So, imagine how much effort government to recover the soil fertility of paddy land. Therefore not surprising, as consequently, the minister of agriculture proposed budget reallocation on cattle granting package and organic fertilisers processing unit shifted to soil fertility improvement and organising direct assistance fertilisers to farmers. In sum, the development of the state-driven organic agriculture through organic fertiliser subsidy was very slow motion in this period.
More contrast illustration, the ministry of agriculture has set projection target the needs for organic fertiliser in 2010 totally 11.9 million tons which consisted of 8.0 million tons for food crops (rice, maize, soybeans, groundnuts, mungbean, cassava and sweet potatoes), and 1.5 million tons for estate crops, and 0.9 million tons for horticultures (fruits, vegetables, herbals, floricultures, included fungus, “lumut” or moss-grown, water-type plants, etc.), 0.5 for animal husbandry, and 1.5 million tons for fisheries. Moreover the need for making RPPO, a house for processing organic fertilisers will be 200 units in 2010. All of the projections above written down in a draft of Strategic Planning of the Ministry of Agriculture 2010-2014 produced by the ministry of agriculture in 30 December 2009.
Hope, then, non-state parties (private companies, NGOs, and farmers) keeps move forward… As reported, for one of illustrations, …If the company succeeded to build 10,000 units of small-scale organic fertiliser factory that will cost Rp 3.5 million, which it will absorb 10,000 workers whilst adds the cow population around 300,000. Thus, fertiliser type will be more varied and the farmer can self-produce organic fertilizers… (Suara Karya: Fertilizer Subsidy Will be Decreased to Reduce Misuse, n.d., 2009 in Tjahjadi: Fertilising soil organically, a slow track with turbulence period to Cuban Model?).
Read, also previous posting: Minggu, 10 Januari 2010
Fertilising soil organically, a slow track with turbulence period to Cuban Model? Indonesia; A review with focus to the state Budget. Jakarta, 10 Januari 2010
Amount the state subsidy increased
In the approval APBN-P 2010 or revision version the government and Parliament agreed on the amount of Central Government Expenditures amounted to Rp781.5 trillion and Transfer to Regions amounted to Rp344.6 trillion. Entire amount was agreed Expenditures amounted Rp1.126 trillion or 18% of GDP, increased by Rp77.1 trillion from the state budget in 2010. One source of change in the state budget was spending on energy subsidies included subsidies of gasoline, LPG and biofuel (BBN, bahan bakar nabati) to Rp88.9 trillion from the state budget 2010 (APBN 2010) only Rp68.7 trillion. Other Energy Subsidies is Electricity, where in APBN-P 2010 are Rp55 trillion or an increase compared to 2010 state budget (APBN 2010) which only Rp37.8 trillion. For non-energy subsidies, in the APBN-P 2010 or revision version state budget in 2010 amounted to Rp57.3 trillion or an increase compared to 2010 state budget which is only Rp51.3 trillion. Non-energy Subsidy in APBN-P 2010 or revision version increased was mainly due to the increase of food subsidies, fertilisers subsidies and seed subsidies. Food subsidies amounted to Rp14.0 trillion from previous state budget 2010 only Rp11.4 trillion. Fertiliser subsidies amounted to Rp18.4 trillion in the state budget revision 2010 increased compared to the previous state budget 2010 that only 14.8 trillion. Seed subsidies also increased to Rp2.3 trillion in the state budget 2010 revision version (APBN-P 2010) compared to only Rp 1.6 trillion to the state budget 2010.
The state budget documents in APBN-P 2010, the rupiah set Rp. 9.500. Meanwhile in APBN 2010 set Rp. 10 000, -/US $ this figure is lower than USD. 500/US $ when compared with APBN-P 2009. Nevertheless according Dr. Harry Azhar Azis MA (n.d.) within a period of five years (2005-2009), the rupiah depreciated by up to 22%.
Fertiliser Subsidy Policy
Fertiliser subsidy in 2010 amounted to Rp14.8 trillion, consisting of: of chemical fertiliser price subsidy of Rp11. 3 trillion, the direct assistance of chemical fertiliser to farmers (BLP) Rp1.6 trillion, Organic Fertiliser Processing Unit Rp105. billion, Cattle granting Rp250 billion, Less paid the previous year of chemical fertiliser Rp1.5 trillion. Government put priority to sufficient supply of required gas companies in the domestic of chemical fertiliser producers in order to maintain food security. The government guarantees the price of gas to meet the needs of the domestic of chemical fertiliser producers in order to maintain food security. Local governments were given the authority overseeing the distribution of subsidised chemical fertilisers through the mechanism of the farmer groups’ Definitive Plan Needs (RDKK)
Government guarantees the availability of chemical fertilisers, according the Coordinating Minister on Economic Hatta Rajasa, because monitoring of the provision of subsidies is now good. Seepage of the distribution of fertilisers has been able to overcome. Previously, fertiliser subsidies are often missed-on-target to the wrong parties. "Now we give subsidies to farmers who have the right," he explains.
According to Hatta, total national requirement of urea fertiliser subsidies and non-urea approximately 11 million tons. While the subsidy for urea fertiliser for approximately 6 million tons. However, it is planned realization of the fertiliser subsidies would be reduced. "Because farmers can make savings," he said. Hatta also explained about the continuity of gas supply for chemical fertiliser industry. To overcome the gas supply, the government plans to build new fertiliser plants. "In the area around the waters of Kaltim (East Kalimantan) was added to the new fertiliser plants, then we will also build a new fertiliser plant in Donggi-Senoro," Hatta said. For fertiliser company whose contract with the gas company will be terminated, according to Hatta, still have extended his contract for maintaining gas supplies (Koran Tempo Thursday, March 25, 2010)
Seed Subsidy (2010): Rp1. 6 trillion
Supporting national food security programs, and provides quality seeds at affordable prices are the main policy. Agricultural subsidies (fertilsers, seeds, credit) can be prepared and routed directly to subsidies paid to farmers without going through to the product. Planned for 2010 will be conducted pilot projects in 10 provinces beforehand using smart cards or coupons. Ministry of Agriculture is preparing schemes regarding the provision of fertiliser subsidy will be given to farmers. This scheme is expected to take effect in 2011. Ten provinces are North Sumatera, South Sumatera, West Jawa, Central Jawa, Yogyakarta, East Jawa, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan and South Sulawesi.
10 sources, 10 problems
Minister of Agriculture Suswono, in the written statement received by okezone.com, in Jakarta, Saturday (06/02/2010), this year's funding for agricultural development was obtained through 10 sources – almost all depends to the state budget. The first funding source was State Revenue Expenditure Budget (APBN) Agriculture (sectoral) Rp8 2010, 03 trillion (which amounted to 81.24 per cent is allocated in the region). Secondly, through the Special Allocation Fund (DAK) agriculture Rp1, 52 trillion. Third, fertilizer subsidies Rp14, 75 trillion. Fourth, seed subsidy Rp1, 56 trillion. Fifth, the revitalization of the cocoa Rp0, 5 trillion. Sixth, Credit for Cattle Breeding Business (KUPS) with a credit limit of Rp1, 81 trillion. Seventh, the Credit for food security and energy (KKP-E) with a ceiling Rp8, 14 trillion. Eighth KPEN RP Rp37 trillion with credit approval contract reached Rp5 trillion. Ninth, Credit for Community business (KUR) for the agricultural sector has reached a cumulative distribution Rp4, 4 trillion. Lastly, is the investment of the private and the public.
Ten issues facing the agricultural sector, namely the increasing environmental degradation and global climate change, the availability of infrastructure, facilities and infrastructure, land, and water. Then, the status and small size of ownership of land (9.55 million households with <0.5 ha), so make the weak the seed systems and national seed breeding. More further are, farmers' limited access to capital, high interest rates for farming activities, and weak institutional capacity of farmers and extension workers, food security is still vulnerable and still far reaching energy security, diversification of food has not been running well, the low term of trade of farmers (NTP), and less optimal performance and service of agricultural bureaucracy, and integration of inter-sectorals/institutions.
Fundamental problems face in agriculture development are fertility decline in physical, chemical and biological agricultural land so disturbed plant growth, and fertilizer efficiency is low, and should restore the fertility and quality of “sawah” (rice fields).
Revising APBN 2010, arguably; background
The legal basis argued by the government when proposing APBN-P 2010 revision of version of APBN 2010, however, arguably. According to the Parliament the legal basis used by the government in submitting a draft revision the state budget 2010 not correct. On contrary, Finance Minister Sri Mulyani Indrawati (at that time) said the legal basis used by the government was appropriate. During deliberation sessions in the House of Representatives Commission XI, Tuesday (13 / 4) walked a lot. This is related to basic law of a draft revision version of the 2010 state budget proposed by the government by using Article 27 of Law Number 47 Year 2009 regarding the state budget in 2010, Article 27 of Law Number 17 Year 2003, and Article 156 of Act No. 27 of 2009 on the MPR, DPR, DPD, and Parliament. Parliament, however, considered the use of a third legal basis was not appropriate. Member of Commission XI Nusron Wahid said the government could not submitted a draft of revision to the 2010 state budget by using Article 27 of Law Number 47 Year 2009 regarding the state budget in 2010. Because there is no report that mentions the existence of the first semester of macro changes in assumptions. Whereas Article 27 of Law Number 47 Year 2009 stated, the government can ask approval revision to the State Budget if any changes to the macro assumptions, changes in some budgets, and if any semiannual reports. "This is just one quarter, of which how can the government are able to consolidate a report for semester so fast?" asked Nusron.
Budimanta Arif, a member of Commission XI of the other added, no diction or choice of words in Article 27 of Law Number 47 Year 2009, which called the government may propose RAPBN-P for priority programs. "What is proposed is a priority program. When the government filed this priority program with Article 27 of Law on State Budget 2010, the government and we are discussing this, everything has been violating the law," said PDIP these politicians.
Riza V. Tjahjadi
email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
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