Sabtu, 26 Juni 2010
It’s common, when you buy a durian fruit (Durio zibethinus Murr.) on the roadside fruit sellers, then the available varieties with diverse tastes. Popularity, purchasing five then you will find five different flavors, except if you make a “dodol durian” or sweet cake (pulp of durian mixed with sticky rice and coconut milk) or cooked with coconut milk and pieces of banana into durian compote; the so-called “kolak durian”. But the durian is the king of fruit ... even though non-Asian people do not like the smell that stung. Therefore, for consumers in Japan by Thai entrepreneurs of durian fruit is processed into dry snacks and odorless. In addition to coated seeds eaten, durian trees are used for environmental conservation by reducing soil erosion; skin of the fruit is used as charcoal or mixtures as media for growing crops; the roots, leaves and fruit skin can be used also as a medicine (Tjitrosoepomo, 1952; Heyne, 1987; Rismunandar, 1986; Suhardi, 2002). Durian main stem used as wood for building materials - are among the Dayak communities in East Kalimantan are classified as second-class quality of timber.
Buy five and … your will get five different tastes..! Will be replaced by mono-taste in 2015… Durian and mangosteen.. transgenic
Riza V. Tjahjadi
Indonesia is the center of origin of durian in the world. Kostermans in 1958 reported distribution of 27 species of Durio: 18 in Kalimantan, 11 in the Malay Peninsula, and seven in Sumatera. Result study of the herbarium collections at the Bogor Botanical Gardens in Indonesia indicate that there are at least 20 types of Durio: 18 in Kalimantan, Sumatra 7 , and one each in Jawa, Bali, Sulawesi, and Maluku (Germplasm Bulletin 11:28-33, 2005). Year 2008 acquired two new varieties of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) were durian “tanpa sekat” alias durian partition-off, and durian “gundul” or durian without thorns or spikes (see: second pic; right). "The first one is a durian without the bulkhead." Shaped like a durian ordinary. But, when cut and open, the meat is thicker because it was not sectional, "said Reza. The contents of the second package were more exotic. The fruit was likely a big breadfruit. But, when it opened, it was seen durian flesh yellowish."They were sweet, savory, and delicious," said Reza Tirtawinata, the head of Laboratory Research Division of PT Mekar Unggul Sari, who manages the Nature Trail Mekarsari in Jonggol in the region of Bogor Regency ... At this time, both two samples of a unique durian that is being developed in the laboratory of Mekarsari. "Now, these two durian varieties are in the process release of varieties to be recognized as national varieties, "said Reza Tirtawinata to Syamsul Hidayat, a news-reporter of Gatra weekly magazine (Gatra No. 30 Thursday, June 5, 2008).
Mangosteen is a fruit of a tree crop that comes from tropical rain forests in Southeast Asia, the jungles of Malaysia or Indonesia. From Southeast Asia, this plant spread to Central America region and other tropical regions such as Sri Lanka, Malagasy Republic, the Caribbean, Hawaii, and northern Australia. Center for tree planting or Garnicia mangostana mangosteen is East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, West Jawa (Jasinga, Ciamis, Wanayasa), West Sumatra, North Sumatra, Riau, East Java and North Sulawesi.
Mangosteen fruit eaten fresh, but can also be expressed in the form of fresh, canned fruit, make the syrup / juice. Traditionally, mangosteen fruit is a cure canker sores, hemorrhoids and wounds. Recently many companies are interested in processing the mangosteen, so that could practically consumed by people. Mangosteen is a nutritious fruit commodity for health and beauty because it has antioxidants that capture free radicals and prevent cell damaged thus hampered the process of cell degeneration. Not just the meat that the mangosteen fruit rich in vitamin C, 66 mg, but also the efficacy of multi skin anticancer, antioxidant, efficacious overcome coronary heart disease, HIV, etc. (mrceko on 20 May 2010). Mangosteen, the skin can be used also as a substance natural dying. Endang Kwartiningsih et all. (2009) examine the potential for mangosteen rind.
The peel of mangosteen contains antosianin and tannin pigment. It was extracted in soxhlet equipment and in a stirred tank by ethanol as solvent. The next processing were distillation, crystallization and drying. In a stirred tank the temperature was done between
30-70 C degree with 10 C degree interval. The higher temperature, the higher dyes result at the same time. The process produced 19.45 % dyes powder by soxhlet equipment and 13.15 % by stirred tank at 70 oC. Then the dyes powder was tested in colouring and colour fading to the white cloth by laundrymeter and crockmeter. The colour fading test for laundrying showed that the grey scale value and the stainning scale value were 2-3 (less). But the colour fading test for polishing showed that the stainning scale value were 3-4 (good enough) for dry polishing and 3 (enough) for wet polishing (Endang Kwartiningsih et all. 2009)
In traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, the mangosteen fruit and its skin has been used for several centuries. Meanwhile, scientifically proven on laboratory mice who consumed the mangosteen juice is equivalent to three liters, if in humans, no tissue damage whatsoever. From the results of an investigation, the original fruit of Southeast Asia can produce Xanthone, ie substances that are formed from the isolated skin of the mangosteen fruit. Levels reached 123.97 mg per ml. Xanthone have antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity. Xanthone research began in 1970 and until now has been found in more than 40 types of Xanthone, among which are alpha-mangostin and gamma mangostin which is believed to have the ability to prevent various diseases. Both types Xanthone can help stop inflammation (inflammation) production by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme that causes inflammation (mrceko on 20 May 2010),
Production of durian and mangosteen, according to the Agriculture Sector Development Performance, published by the Ministry of Agriculture in 2008 spelled out small when compared with other fruits in the period 2004-2007. Largest production in the year 2007 (figures prognosis) sequentially from the largest number of commodities other fruits (5.78068 million tons), bananas (5.26644 million tons), citrus (2.85961 million tons), mango (1.72503 million tons) , durian (792.9 thousand tons), papaya (671 040 tons), and avocado (256 660 tons). It is probable that a part of the mangosteen fruit other commodities. The durian and bananas which are both centers of origin in Indonesia, was very much difference in production: banana was ranked second, while the durian was ranked fifth. Then, it's not surprising Research and Development Agency Ministry of Agriculture has a research agenda for the development of transgenic durian and mangosteen. Two Indonesian tropical fruits together with some food crops that is wheat, corn, rice soybeans are part of the development of agricultural biotechnology in the period 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Agriculture; an excerpt from the Draft Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of the Ministry of Agriculture (see: first pic, left)
22.214.171.124 REVITALISATION SEEDS AND SEEDLING
The availability of seeds and cultivation aspects seed represents something that is very fundamental. The combination of fertile land with the seeds / seedlings will produce superior / delivery of superior production. Historically the role of the seed has been proven at the time of success in increasing production in the era of Green Revolution in the year 1960, and the success of self-sufficiency in rice and maize, which has recently achieved, among others, also because of the use of superior seeds. Therefore, to achieve and maintain sustainable food self-sufficiency, the device of seed crops must strong. As to improve seed device the efforts that need to be done are: 1) Restructure the national seed institution ranging from central to local levels. 2) Protect, preserve and make use of national genetic resources for the development of local varieties. 3) Encourage private sector to participate in business development seed. 4) Strengthen the glorification of labor force in various strata / level of education. 5) Developing a breeder-seed breeder at the field level 6) Multiplying/ extensify seed sources from both local sources and from abroad. 7) The application of the law of seed.
126.96.36.199 REVITALISATION TECHNOLOGY AND UPSTREAM INDUSTRY
Things to do in order to revitalize the technology and downstream industries are: 1). Increasing research activities particularly in the context of the creation of technological innovation seeds, seedlings, fertiliser, veterinary medicines and plant, machinery and processed food products as well as utilisation of land resources and water. Ministry of Agriculture to come will focus on efforts to produce: (a) seeds, seed, fertiliser, veterinary medicines and plant, machinery and processed food products that suit their needs and field conditions, (b) agricultural resource management, technological innovation, (c) recommendations agricultural policy, (d) research on pest control that effective but environmentally friendly, and (e) adoption of innovative technology research and development. Agriculture Ministry will also continue to develop innovative agricultural technology, agricultural development policy formulation that is anticipatory and responsive, and various models of institutional cooperation between businessmen to distribute proportionately technology incentives within the framework of an industrial agricultural system. Network of national and international cooperation in the framework Science and technology or agricultural innovation will continue to be developed. Research and Development Agency will prepare a recommendation technologies, especially the cultivation technologies associated with climate change and the implementation of sound agricultural practices of environmental sustainability
In the presentation of the National Priority 5: Food Security by Deputy Natural Resources and Environment of Bappenas, the national planning Agency, with topic on the national Priority Work Planning or RKP MUSRENBANGNAS in 2011 in Jakarta on 28 April to 1 May 2010 said Priority Activities for Research and development of food crops is to increase food crops technology innovations to support food security and food resilience that includes rice, cereals, nuts and tubers.
This is one of the seven principal as the elaboration of policy direction from the National Priority 5: Food Security from 2010 to 2014 of the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN), no: ... 3. Provision of seed and support the development of downstream industries of agriculture and fisheries research and development results of innovation.
The target in the year 2011: 1) The number of new varieties 5; 2) The number of farming technology, harvesting and post harvest primers 5; 3) The number of accessions resources system (PGR) identified, the collected and conserved the nature of the 800 crop varieties; 4) Total seed production source (Basic Seeds or BS, Foundation Seeds or FS) of rice, cereals, nuts and tubers to the ISO 9001-2000 QMS is BS 10 tons FS 20 tons, and 5) The number of research consortium on rice, soybeans, and wheat as much as two researches. Total budget for the budget year 2011 amounted to 103.43 billion rupiah (Bappenas, 2010: MUSRENBANGNAS RKP 2011 Jakarta April 28 to May 1, 2010). Estimation for exchange rate 2011, 1US$ = Rp 9.200.
The National Priority 5: Food Security 2010-2014 Bappenas also mention LIPI, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences is in its institutions related to molecular biology: In no .. 3. mentioned, that the provision of seed and support the development of downstream industries of agriculture and fisheries research and development results of innovation, the No. column. 2. Infrastucture, point: c. Development and maintenance of communications technology and a national information system that serves the areas of agricultural production centers to improve the quantity and quality of production and marketing capabilities, listed No. 13 R & D for superior seeds with Molecular Biology of Seed with target are seed-based molecular biology. Year 2011 target set amount to two varieties of crop seeds. Allocation of budget funds amounting to 5 billion rupiah.
Wheat, research since 1983
Japan has developed a wheat crop in Indonesia. This plant developed in the area Nongko Parallelograms (East Jawa) and Kopeng, Salatiga (Central Jawa). To develop this plant, the Japanese cooperate with the Satya Wacana Christian University (SWCU) Salatiga, who has long been doing research about plants that can only be known a normal life in the sub-tropical regions. "This is still in the pilot project stage. But the planting area reached 300 hectares. In Kopeng 150 hectares and 150 hectares in Nongko Jajar," said Franciscus Welirang CEO PT Bogasari Flour Mills in sideline of a Seminar on the Role of Interior Design in Bakery Business Jakarta, Wednesday (03/18/2009). Franciscus Welirang, adding to develop this plant, the Japanese side has disbursed funds to Rp2 billion for the pilot project with the pilot. Franky denied when it is said the wheat crop is not suitable planted in Indonesia, since Indonesia is a tropical region. "Not true, because many farmers we've been planting wheat. And most of the harvests are merely for their own consumption. Moreover, in this project, Japan and SWCU already have the technology to project the development of this wheat," said Franciscus Welirang a son in law of Salim Sudono the conglomerate during the Soeharto regime (Okezone, March 18, 2009 )
History record, however, the study of plant mutation breeding in wheat was conducted by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) began in 1983. At first, plant mutation breeding expert from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries the seeds of two varieties of wheat CIMMYT tropical Mexican origin, namely Sonalika and SA-75. Early research was on radiosensitivity of wheat crop from Gamma-ray for further breeding purposes.
In 1984, research was continued with more in-depth study of plant resistance to diseases of wheat rust (Puccinia striiformis), in cooperation with the Agricultural University of Norway. The results in the form of mutation breeding mutant strains (mutant lines) were tested in the field of wheat began with highland agroecosystem conditions (800-1200 m asl) cool temperate seas in Cipanas, West Jawa in 1992-1994. In that study, a number of promising lines have been generated and reported (Soeranto, 1997). Due to the policies the Ministry of Agriculture, then, research on wheat crop in BATAN can be not continued in 1995. However, mutant strains of seed wheat, which has produced remains safe and neatly stored in a cold room.
In 2001, wheat breeding research collaboration between BATAN and PT Flour Mills began to be carried out with the signing of the MOU dated August 31, 2001. Cooperation activities began with the renovation and seed propagation of mutant strains that have been stored relatively long time in BATAN. Among the wheat mutant lines, the CPN-1 mutant strains (Son10-1) and CPN-2 (SA10-22) still has the vigor and ability to grow pretty well, so that both mutant lines are immediately regenerated and multiplied his seed.
Concurrently, PT Bogasari submitted seeds of three varieties of wheat from CIMMYT namely Punjab 81 (Acc. No. BW8623), WL2265 (Acc. No. BW11096), and SA-75 (Acc. No. BW 6277), each with very limited number of seeds, to be further investigated in BATAN. Rejuvenation and multiplication of seeds of wheat field experiment was conducted in ICRP Padarincang located in the highlands of Cipanas West Jawa with an altitude of about 800 m asl.
Research on plant mutation breeding wheat in ICRP received technical support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (International Atomic Energy Agency) through Project RAS/5/040 IAEA. This collaborative research project pursued to collect plant mutation breeding wheat for Asian countries (Indonesia, India, Pakistan, China, Thailand, and Korea). In a meeting in Beijing, China December 18 to 22 March 2002, all member countries agreed to undertake exchange cooperation seed mutant strains of wheat, then to be further investigated in each participating country. Accordingly, Indonesia has received three kinds of mutant seeds of wheat from China and four kinds of mutant wheat from Pakistan (www.batan.go.id).
more on transgenic
Senin, 24 Mei 2010 10:36 WIB | Iptek | Sains | Dibaca 463 kali
Numerous studies of genetic engineering of food crops in negotiating changes in a drier climate in the future have been started Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), for example on cassava plants or mannihot esculenta. `For example phytoenesynthase coding gene (Psy) involved in the biosynthesis of beta-carotene in cassava been identified and are in-sequence for confirmation, `said a researcher at LIPI puslit Biotekologi Prof. Dr. Enny Sudarmonowati recently confirmed as a research professor by LIPI in Jakarta, Monday.
Genes obtained will be reintroduced to the cassava crop through genetic transformation techniques have been mastered so hopefully no longer have trouble in the future, Enny said.
Beta carotene thought to correlate with resistance to drought, he said, already can be improved in such research. Efforts to produce cassava containing high amylose content is also being carried out, Enny said, even the effort to produce cassava with lower amylose had reached the field is limited to test fifth
Efforts to produce cassava containing high amylose content is also being carried out, Enny said, even the effort to produce cassava with lower amylase. With limited field testing we've arrived the fifth generation and this is the first Indonesia transgenic variety of cassava in the world.
Amylose amylopectin starch component in addition to the natural composition is 20 percent to 80 percent amylose and amylopectin to. "amylose if the reduced rates would be better for the processing of paper and textile industries because of its processing easier. In LIPI amilosa proven content can be reduced so only two to three percent of the natural 20 percent by this GMO, "he said.
While high amylose content (low amylopectin) is required for food industries, particularly food for people who have problems with digestion and to drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, he added.
The study of biotechnology for cassava post-harvest according to him has also been carried out, such as to increase the shelf after the harvest period of five days was increased to 12 days. Biofortification addition (adding nutrients to the plants) has also been done on cassava was like entering the iron and zinc, Enny added (www.biotek.lipi.go.id).
Albazia Falcataria transgenic, the first in the world
Jumat, 21 Mei 2010 22:15 WIB | Iptek | Teknologi | Dibaca 1447 kali
Limited Test Facility Center for Biotechnology Research Indonesian Institute of Sciences (of LIPI) has produced a wood tree, named sengon (Albazia Falcataria). The world's first transgenic. "Insertion xyloglucanase gene has been successfully carried into the plant paraserianthes," said Dr. Biotechnology Expert. Enny Sudarmonowati LIPI confirmed after he became Professor of Research in Jakarta, Friday afternoon.
Sengon transgenic plants containing genes xyloglucanase proven to grow faster and contain cellulose higher than control plants in the Limited Test Facility (FUT) and therefore they have to grow more quickly when moved from the FUT to field, he said. Wood sengon economic value that is used for house building poles, container boards, furniture, fence, until the pulp and paper. On the other side also has a strong advantage of the main roots so well planted on the edge of the erosion-prone areas and became one of the government’ policy (Sengonisasi) around watersheds (DAS).
With the insertion of the gene sengon plants is also easier to produce ethanol, hydrolyzed and higher, he said. "Genes have been cloned from sengon ie sucrose synthase and gene encoding 4-CL lignin will be transformed further, "he said.
Other woodtrees has been tested in transgenic plants also in the country is Acasia mangium cellulose-containing gene and can produce more sugar as well as teak (Tectona grandis) is inserted gene LEAFY aimed enlargement of the stem.
Indonesia, he said, very behind in transgenic research in the forestry sector, even until now there has not been tested to the limited field, from the previous stage was tested in the laboratory and tested in the FUT. He also explained, the results of genetic engineering of plants is now more and more utilized, where in 2009 the number of countries that have commercial planting of transgenic crops are 25 countries with 800 million hectares of area. "For the time being still dominated by agricultural crops such as corn, soybeans and cotton, with a gene for resistance to insects and nature of herbicides, with the state the most developed transgenic is the United States, "he said.
Source: LKBN Antara news agency (also: www.biotek.lipi.go.id).
LIPI Transgenic Sengon
Seed Production Process Sengon Encapsulation Method of Tissue Culture Results
NO REGISTRATION P00200400517 P00200400517
Date REGISTRATION 2004-10-13 2004-10-13
This invention related to seed production process sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) using encapsulation of shoot sengon tissue culture results.
Inventor NAME Dr. Dr. Enny Sudarmonowati Enny Sudarmonowati
Prof. Prof. Dr. Dr. Ir. Ir. Bambang Prasetya. Bambang Prasetya. AU20000066690D 20001024. AU20000066690D 20,001,024. Process for production of perlite fiber composite from expanded perlite biomass fiber and SBP-X1 glue Process for production of composite fiber perlite expanded perlite from biomass fiber and glue SBP-X1
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