Rabu, 13 Juli 2011

Fertiliser Subsidy Cut due to leakage in Distribution?

Fertiliser Subsidy Cut due to leakage in Distribution?

versi Indonesia di bawah

a compilation by: Riza V. Tjahjadi


The idea to cut subsidies on chemical fertilisers State Budget, State Budget 2011, due to leakages in the distribution of chemical fertilisers, loud among the farm in April. Is it true? It is not clear. If the issue of allocation of the amount of chemical fertiliser subsidy will be cut into smaller amounts, whether organic fertiliser subsidies will be cut as well?

Currently amount of organic fertiliser subsidy allocation of 835.000 tons. That number is smaller in number than the data the state budget 2011 at 1,092,000 tons (Tjahjadi, 2011; also poster above)

The following is reaction from farmers' organisations representation of two regions of West Jawa to the issue of cutting the amount of chemical fertiliser subsidies, and saw the need to reduce the total allocation of chemical fertilisers, but gradually and hence the amount of organic fertiliser enhanced allocations. In addition other policy instruments need to be reviewed. Meaning policy that will be taken should not in fragmentary perspectives.

Pikiran Rakyat daily (14 April 2011) The central government plans to cut subsidies for agricultural fertiliser inorganic in the proposed APBN-P 2011 (Budget-Revision 2011). This relates has been the shift of some farmers into organic fertiliser. However, incorrect calculations of the reduction in fertiliser subsidies, it can threaten national food security.

"Supposedly, the use of inorganic fertilisers is reduced, but the reduction was gradual, can not be done drastically," said Chief Executive of the Himpunan Kerukunan Tani Indonesia (HKTI) or the Association Council Harmony Tani Indonesia of West Jawa, Entang Sastraat-Madja, in Bandung on Wednesday (13/ 4 ) to “Pikiran Rakyat”.daily newspaper.

He said, today the average farmer in West Jawa using a portion of 70% inorganic fertilizer, as well as 30% organic. Ideally, the use of inorganic fertiliser is gradually reduced, so does the amount of subsidies granted. This is related to soil conditions that tend to be damaged, if continuously given inorganic fertilisers. "Inorganic fertilisers continue to be reduced to be balanced with the use of organic," he said.

Regarding food security, he considered, there are currently a number of other instruments that need more urgent attention. The instrument in question includes the procurement of seeds, irrigation, extension, and eradication of pests, and diseases. Thus, the focus of attention can be diverted to the central government issue.

For example irrigation, irrigation village today is still a problem to be faced. In fact, a number of agricultural areas in the north coast of West Jawa allegedly threatened with drought, because of inadequate irrigation infrastructure. "It is better to irrigate the villages, in order to anticipate the possibility of long period of drought this year," he said.

Meanwhile, Chairman of Kontak Tani dan Nelayan Andalan (KTNA) or Contact of Farmers and Fishermen Leader of West Jawa, Oo Sutisna rate, reduction of this subsidy should be done with mature calculations. If either count, it is not possible reduction of subsidies have a major impact on production and food security.

On Monday (11/ 4), the Minister of Agriculture in Jakarta Suswono admit, during this leak fertiliser subsidy. This, the government will cut the fertiliser subsidy in the Budget Amendment of 2011. He said the current volume of subsidised fertiliser was reduced, as farmers shift to organic fertilisers.

Tightening supervision of the distribution of fertilisers through the group needs a definitive plan (RDKK) run effectively, thereby reducing leaks distribution of fertiliser’ subsidies.
Thus, it would revise the amount of fertiliser subsidy in the state budget 2011 with a reduction in fertiliser subsidies volume. "In the revised budget then we are being recalculated, meaning with no increase in HET (harga eceran tertinggi) or ceiling retailer price of fertiliser, it reduced the volume," he said. (A-179/Dtc )

As being known, Article 9 Permentan) No. 6/Permentan/SR.130/2/2011 stated ... (2) Ceiling Retail Price (HET) Subsidised Fertiliser referred to in paragraph (1)
defined as follows:
- Urea Fertiliser = Rp.1.600; per kg ;
- Fertiliser SP-36 = Rp.2.000; per kg;
- Fertiliser ZA = Rp.1.400; per kg;
- NPK = Rp.2.300; per kg;
- Fertiliser Organic = Rp. 700; per kg;
(3) Ceiling Retail Price (HET) of fertiliser subsidy as referred to in paragraph (2) applies to purchases by farmers, planters, farmers, fish farmers and/ or shrimp in the Channel Line IV in cash in the packaging as follows:
- Urea = 50 kg;
- Fertiliser SP-36 = 50 kg;
- Fertiliser ZA = 50 kg;
- NPK = 50 kg or 20 kg;
- Organic Fertiliser = 40 kg or 20 kg;


West Jawa Province is one of the rice production centers in Indonesia, which contributes greatly to the national rice production. This was reflected by the average area harvested and production of paddy in a year during the last ten years (1999-2008), consecutive harvest area of rice in West Jawa area of 1.81262 million hectares per year or 15.32% of his vast national rice harvest area (11,834,722 ha per year) and rice production in West Jawa as much as 9,582,594.75 tons of paddy per year or 17.63% of its national rice production (54,357,877.75 tons of paddy per year), meanwhile based on achievement levels of productivity, then the average productivity of rice in West Java 15.12% higher compared with the level of rice productivity in the national average (52,85 quintal per ha vs 45,91 quintal per ha of dried unmilled rice grains).

According to the head of West Java BPTP, (presented at the Monthly Meeting BP4K of Kuningan Regency Office, Tuesday, March 5, 2011) The Productivity of rice in West Jawa in 2010 amounted to 59.60 quintal/ ha with an area of 1,825,346 ha and harvest rates Rice Farm Productivity for 35.07 quintal/ ha with 130,427 ha harvested area. Field-School on Integrated Crop Management (SL-PTT) is expected to increase the productivity of rice in West Jawa. To find out how big the resulting productivity stepping through the SL-PTT is required early picture (the productivity of existing) and good measurement mechanisms. Regency Kuningan in West Jawa itself a target for additional production of rice in 2011 was 19,984 tons with the target acreage (Dry Season II) 7954 Ha.

Trimmed subsidies are subsidies to the scheme of Direct Fertiliser (BLP). This is a short-cut solution to the problem of leakage in distribution lines of chemical fertilisers. Whereas BLP is a subsidy scheme to the improvement of chemical fertilisers producers.

Here is an illustration background on chemical fertilisers subsidy pre-BLP - as described in the Model Integrated Agricultural Subsidies: Conceptual and factual basis and Operations System (Ministry of Agriculture, 3 April 2006)

KP PSE study results on the performance of the gertilisers subsidy the era of free markets gained some important information (Sudaryanto, et al, 2005) as follows: (a) Construction of the policy raises market dualism and is prone to irregularities, (b) The occurrence of illegal exports because world market prices in more attractive, (c) The transfer or removal of subsidies on fertiliser can lead to domestic fertiliser prices hikes; (d) The opportunity for a large enough supply shortages as a result of mismanagement, (e) Subsidies input easier than subsidising agricultural output prices, (f) Policy rated fertiliser subsidy ineffective, and recommended that the fertiliser subsidy to farmers returned.

More illustration (...) fertiliser subsidy policy of the era of free markets, triggered by an increase in gas prices since 2000 eventually prompted the government to give back fertiliser subsidies since 2001. In summary the performance of the fertiliser subsidy in the previous period can be expressed (Sudaryanto, et al, 2005) as follows: (a) Performance of subsidies before the era of free markets: to encourage the achievement of rice self-sufficiency in 1984; reduction in subsidies need to be compensated for by increased production rates, and increase in fertiliser prices has no effect on its use, because its proportion in the cost of farming is still relatively ketch!; (b) Elimination of subsidies when entering the era of free markets: the elimination of monopolies has been to streamline the distribution of fertilizers; that subsidise fertiliser more fairly assessed in comparison with gas subsidies for fertiliser plants; (c) a return policy to subsidise fertiliser: ROSP format (Operational Plan Fertiliser Subsidy) allows the fertiliser factory to obtain a direct subsidy from the government; subsidies for fertiliser, rather than to farmers; structure fertiliser factory subsidy benefits only. Facts on the ground indicate that the fertiliser subsidy policy in the era of free market is not deemed effective in helping farmers. This is evidenced by some of the following facts: (a) the price of fertiliser at the farm level far above the price of HET, ceiling ratailer price and (b) The supply of fertiliser at the farm level is often scarce because of the dualism market consequence, exports of fertilisers, and limited distribution by the fertiliser plant. Rare phenomenon of supply and fertiliser prices bounced an aberrant case of improper happened. Production of urea fertiliser in the country far exceeds the needs of government and their distribution controlled. Based on the above phenomenon PSE-KP expressly advocating "the return of fertiliser subsidy to farmers" (Simatupang, 2004 ).


Subsidi Pupuk Dipangkas lantaran kebocoran saja?

Kompilasi Riza V. Tjahjadi

Gagasan untuk memotong subsidi pupuk kimia pada APBN, Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara 2011, karena terjadinya kebocoran dalam distribusi pupuk kimia, terdengar nyaring di kalangan pertanian pada bulan April lalu. Apakah benar? Tidak jelas.

Jika benar, apakah subsidi pupuk organik akan terpangkas juga?
Jumlah alokasi pupuk organik bersubsidi Tahun Anggaran 2011 sebesar 835,000 ton. Jumlah tersebut adalah lebih kecil jumlahnya dari data APBN 2011 sebesar 1,092,000 tons (Tjahjadi, 2011l lihat juga Poster di atas).

Di bawah ini adalah reaksi dari representasi dua organisasi petani wilayah Jawa Barat terhadap issue pemotongan jumlah subsidi pupuk kimia.

BANDUNG, (PR) 14 April 2011- Pemerintah pusat berencana memangkas alokasi subsidi untuk pupuk pertanian anorganik dalam APBN Perubahan 2011. Hal ini berkaitan telah beralihnya sebagian petani ke pupuk organik. Namun, perhitungan yang salah mengenai pengurangan subsidi pupuk, justru dapat mengancam ketahanan pangan nasional.

"Seharusnya, penggunaan pupuk anorganik memang dikurangi, tetapi pengurangan-nya bertahap, tidak bisa dilakukan secara drastis," kata Ketua Harian DPD Himpunan Kerukunan Tani Indonesia (HKTI) Jawa Barat, Entang Sastraatmadja, di Bandung, Rabu (13/4).

Dia mengatakan, saat ini rata-rata petani di Jawa Barat menggunakan porsi pupuk 70% anorganik, serta 30% organik. Idealnya, penggunaan pupuk anorganik secara bertahap terus dikurangi, begitu pula besaran subsidi yang diberikan. Hal ini berkaitan kondisi tanah yang cenderung rusak, jika terus-menerus diberi pupuk anorganik. "Pupuk anorganik terus dikurangi agar seimbang dengan penggunaan organik," katanya.

Berkaitan ketahanan pangan, dia menilai, saat ini terdapat sejumlah instrumen lain yang perlu mendapat perhatian lebih mendesak. Instrumen yang dimaksud di antaranya pengadaan benih, pengairan penyuluhan, serta pemberantasan hama, dan penyakit. Maka, fokus perhatian pemerintah pusat bisa dialihkan ke persoalan tersebut.

Untuk pengairan misalnya, saat ini irigasi desa masih menjadi permasalahan yang harus dihadapi. Bahkan, sejumlah daerah pertanian di kawasan pantai utara Jawa Barat ditengarai terancam kekeringan, karena belum memadainya infrastruktur pengairan. "Lebih baik untuk irigasi desa saja, demi mengantisipasi kemungkinan terjadinya kemarau panjang tahun ini," ujarnya.

Sementara itu, Ketua Kelompok Tani dan Nelayan Andalan (KTNA) Jawa Barat, Oo Sutisna menilai, pengurangan subsidi ini harus dilakukan dengan perhitungan matang. Jika salah menghitung, bukan tidak mungkin pengurangan subsidi berdampak besar terhadap produksi serta ketahanan pangan.

Pada Senin (11/4) lalu, Menteri Pertanian Suswono di Jakarta mengakui, selama ini terjadi kebocoran subsidi pupuk. Hal ini, membuat pemerintah akan memangkas subsidi pupuk dalam APBN-Perubahan 2011.

Dia mengatakan, saat ini volume pupuk bersubsidi berkurang, karena beralihnya petani ke pupuk organik. Pengetatan pengawasan distribusi pupuk melalui rencana definitif kebutuhan kelompok (RDKK) berjalan efektif, sehingga mengurangi kebocoran-kebocoran penyaluran subsidi pupuk.

Dengan demikian, pihaknya akan melakukan revisi terhadap jumlah subsidi pupuk dalam APBN-P 2011 dengan berkurangnya volumen subsidi pupuk. "Pada APBN-P nanti kita sedang menghitung ulang, artinya dengan tidak ada kenaikan HET (harg eceran tertinggi) pupuk, kan volume berkurang," katanya. (A-179/Dtc)

Pasal 9 Permentan) No. 6/Permentan/SR.130/2/2011menyebutkan … (2) Harga Eceran Tertinggi (HET) Pupuk Bersubsidi sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1)
ditetapkan sebagai berikut :
- Pupuk Urea = Rp.1.600; per kg;
- Pupuk SP-36 = Rp.2.000; per kg;
- Pupuk ZA = Rp.1.400; per kg;
- Pupuk NPK = Rp.2.300; per kg;
- Pupuk Organik = Rp. 700; per kg;

(3) Harga Eceran Tertinggi (HET) pupuk bersubsidi sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) berlaku untuk pembelian oleh petani, pekebun, peternak, pembudidaya ikan dan/atau udang di Penyalur Lini IV secara tunai dalam kemasan sebagai berikut :
- Pupuk Urea = 50 kg;
- Pupuk SP-36 = 50 kg;
- Pupuk ZA = 50 kg;
- Pupuk NPK = 50 kg atau 20 kg;
- Pupuk Organik = 40 kg atau 20 kg;


Provinsi Jawa Barat merupakan salah satu sentra produksi padi di Indonesia yang memberikan kontribusi besar terhadap produksi beras nasional. Hal itu tercermin berdasarkan rata-rata luas areal panen dan produksi padi dalam setahunnya selama sepuluh tahun terakhir (1999-2008), berturut-turut luas areal panen padi di Jawa Barat seluas 1.812.620 ha per tahun atau 15,32%-nya luas areal panen padi nasional (11.834.722 ha per tahun) dan produksi padi di Jawa Barat sebanyak 9.582.594,75 ton GKG per tahun atau 17,63%-nya produksi padi nasional (54.357.877,75 ton GKG per tahun), sedangkan berdasarkan tingkat pencapaian produktivitas, maka produktivitas padi rata-rata di Jawa Barat lebih tinggi 15,12% dibandingkan dengan tingkat produktivitas padi rata-rata secara nasional (52,85 ku per ha vs 45,91 ku per ha GKG).

Menurut Kepala BPTP Jawa Barat, (disampaikan pada Rapat Dinas Bulanan BP4K Kabupaten Kuningan, Selasa 5 Maret 2011) Tingkat Produktivitas Padi Sawah di Jawa Barat Tahun 2010 adalah sebesar 59,60 Ku/Ha dengan luas panen 1.825.346 Ha dan Tingkat Produktivitas Padi Ladang sebesar 35,07 Ku/Ha dengan luas panen 130.427 Ha. Sekolah Lapang-Pengelolaan Tanaman dan Sumberdaya Terpadu (SL-PTT) diharapkan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas Padi di Jawa Barat. Untuk mengetahui seberapa besar loncatan produktivitas yang dihasilkan melalui SL-PTT diperlukan adanya gambaran awal (produktivitas eksisting) dan mekanisme pengukuran yang baik. Untuk Kabupaten Kuningan sendiri target tambahan produksi padi Tahun 2011 adalah 19.984 Ton dengan target luas tanam (Musim Kemarau II) 7.954 Ha.

Subsidi yang dipangkas adalah subsidi dengan skema Bantuan Langsung Pupuk (BLP). Ini adalah short cut solution terhadap masalah kebocoran dalam distribution lines pupuk kimia. Padahal BLP adalah improvement dari skema subsidi kepada produsen pupuk kimia. Berikut ini ilustrasi latar belakang mengenai subsidi pupuk kimia pra-BLP - sebagaimana diuraikan dalam Model Subsidi Pertanian Terpadu: Landasan Konseptual dan Faktual serta Sistem Operasinya (Departemen Pertanian 3 April 2006).

Hasil kajian PSE KP terhadap kinerja subsidi pupuk pada era pasar bebas diperoleh beberapa informasi penting (Sudaryanto, et.al., 2005) sebagai berikut: (a) Konstruksi kebijakan menimbulkan dualisme pasar dan rawan terhadap penyimpangan; (b) Terjadinya ekspor ilegal karena harga di pasar dunia Iebih menarik; (c) Pengalihan atau pencabutan subsidi pupuk dapat menimbulkan lonjakan harga pupuk domestik; (d) Peluang terjadinya kelangkaan pasokan cukup besar sebagai akibat dari kesalahan manajemen; (e) Subsidi input Iebih mudah dibandingkan subsidi harga output pertanian; (f) Kebijakan subsidi pupuk dinilai tidak efektif, dan disarankan agar subsidi pupuk dikembalikan lagi kepada petani.

Ilustrasi yang jauh ke belakang (...) kebijakan subsidi pupuk era pasar bebas yang dipicu oleh adanya peningkatan harga gas sejak tahun 2000 pada akhirnya mendorong pemerintah memberikan kembali subsidi pupuk sejak tahun 2001. Secara ringkas kinerja subsidi pupuk pada periode sebelumnya dapat dinyatakan (Sudaryanto, et.al., 2005) sebagai berikut: (a) Kinerja subsidi sebelum era pasar bebas: mampu mendorong tercapainya swasembada beras 1984; pengurangan subsidi perlu dikompensasi dengan peningkatan harga produksi; dan peningkatan harga pupuk tidak berpengaruh terhadap penggunaannya, karena proporsinya dalam biaya usahatani masih relatif keci!; (b) Penghapusan subsidi ketika memasuki era pasar bebas: penghapusan monopoli telah mengefisienkan distribusi pupuk; pemberian subsidi pupuk dinilai iebih adil dibandingkan dengan subsidi gas untuk pabrik pupuk; (c) Kebijakan yang kembali kepada pemberian subsidi pupuk: format ROSP (Rencana Operasional Subsidi Pupuk) memungkinkan pabrik pupuk memperoleh subsidi langsung dari pemerintah; subsidi untuk pabrik pupuk, dan bukan untuk petani; struktur subsidi hanya menguntungkan pabrk pupuk. Fakta di lapangan menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan subsidi pupuk pada era pasar bebas ini dinilai tidak efektif untuk membantu petani. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh beberapa fakta berikut ini: (a) Harga pupuk di tingkat petani jauh di atas harga HET; dan (b) Pasokan pupuk di tingkat petani seringkali langka karena konskuensi dari dualisme pasar, ekspor pupuk, dan keterbatasan penyaluran oleh pabrik pupuk. Fenomena langka pasok dan lonjak harga pupuk merupakan kasus menyimpang yang tidak semestinya terjadi. Produksi pupuk urea dalam negeri jauh melebihi kebutuhan dan distribusinya dikendalikan pemerintah. Berdasarkan fenomena di atas PSE-KP secara tegas menyarankan "kembalikan subsidi pupuk kepada petani" (Simatupang, 2004).


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