Organic fertilisers driven by the state:
soil fertility improvement
expensive price, minim absorption, less confidence?
Edited by Riza V. Tjahjadi
Indonesia needs 30 million Tons Organic Fertilisers
"Today our wetland conditions of the organic matter content below 2 percent, it has been in critical condition," said Minister of Agriculture Suswono when inaugurated a home composting in Desa (village) Banceklok, Kecamatan (sub-district) Jrengik, Kabupaten (district) Sampang of East Jawa Province . The use of organic fertiliser is to be one alternative for the government to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer consumption is quite large and the higher. "For the consumption of urea fertiliser have more than 5 million.
"For the consumption of urea fertiliser have more than 5 million tonnes," he added. The Agriculture Ministry estimates the total national organic fertiliser needs about 30 million tons per year. Let’s say, the national rice area harvested about 12 million ha/ year, each hectare of organic fertiliser require an average of 2 tons per ha. So we need 24 million tons of organic fertiliser. The remaining 6 million tons, to meet the needs of organic fertiliser to the development of SRI (System of Rice Intensification) organic about 10% of rice acreage, which is an area of 1.2 million hectares of organic fertiliser dose reaches 5 tonnes per ha in the first place.
To meet the needs of national organic fertiliser by 30 million tons per year that will require home composting with a capacity of 30,000 units each of one thousand tons of organic fertiliser per year. "But at this time due to budget constraints, the Ministry of Agriculture can only meet a small part," added Suswono. As a form of concern the government to improve the wetland and the development of organic agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture has facilitated the people to produce their own organic fertilisers through home composting development that is integrated with cattle.
"In the year 2009, the Ministry of Agriculture has developed a home grown composting totally 154 units and this year's state budget added about 600 units of home composting," added Suswono.
Director General of Land and Water Management Hilman Manan explained in FY 2010 through the PLA General Tasks Fund will build 235 housing units without cattle compost, and through the Fund Revised Budget FY 2010 also will be built 300 units of home composting is integrated with cattle.
http://www.sinartani.com/saprodi/indonesia-perlu-30-juta-ton-pupuk-organik-1279607696.htm (accessed 13 April 2011)
In fiscal year 2011 on 14 February 2011 the minister of Agriculture through a decree, namely No: 06/Permentan/SR.130/2/2011 Tentang Kebutuhan dan Harga Eceran Tertinggi (HET) Pupuk Bersubsidi untuk Sektor Pertanian Tahun Anggaran 2011 or the ceiling price and the needs of subsidised fertilisers for fiscal year 2011 has set total organic fertilisers subsidy amounted 835,000 tons. The most allocation of subsidised organic fertilisers is targeted to farmers grow food crops amounted 542,750 tons (more detail, see: poster 1).
As being known the minister a decree No: 06/Permentan/SR.130/2/2011 stated: Subsidised fertiliser intended for farmers, gardeners, breeder who seek land 2 (two) hectares maximum per growing season per family farmers except fish/shrimp farmers with maximum 1 (one) hectare ponds.
Minim absorption organic fertiliser by farmers
Government efforts to improve the fertility of agricultural land through organic fertiliser subsidies for farmers are not smooth. In the four years since the first time organic fertiliser subsidy budget allocation in the budget revenues and expenditures (state budget), it turns out, uptake by farmers is relatively minimal. According data from PT Pusri, the highest absorption of organic fertilisers occurred in 2009 that were the 230,000 tonnes compared with the previous year (2008) amounted to 90,000 tons. In 2010, the realisation of organic fertilisers decreased absorption, into a 211,000 tons of the total quota subsidy amounted to 600,000 tons (Kompas Tuesday, February 8, 2011).
Roughly saying there was 115,000 hectares organic farms in 2009, and 45,000 hectares in 2008, and 105,500 hectares in 2010 – which total quota targeted to 300,000 hectares farms utilised organic fertilisers for soil improvement.
At district level, for example, in Kabupaten Bantul of Yogyakarta province in 2010, the allocation of organic fertiliser with a brand namely Petroganik reach 1816 tons. "But until the end of 2010, it absorbed only 710 tons or 39%," said Head of the Department of Agriculture and Forestry (Dipertahut), Ir Edy Suhariyanta MMAdi Bantul, Thursday (13 /1/2011; www.krjogya.com).
According to President Director of PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja (Pusri) Persero Arifin Tasrif there are a number of factors that cause a decline in the realisation of the absorption of organic fertiliser in 2010, among others, increase the selling price of Rp 500 or US$5 Cent per kilogram (2009) to Rp 700 or US$8 Cent per kilogram (2010) and lack of party support related in terms of marketing and promotion. However, from two causes, there is one more obstacle associated lack of awareness about farmers using organic fertilisers. "This is very related to the difficulty of changing the habits of farmers, from the orientation of urea fertiliser to organic fertiliser reorientation. This is the challenge that should be found by the relevant parties, "Arifin said.
It worthy to note 1US$ = Rp 8,600 by 13 April 2011.
From experience in previous years, Arifin added, PT Pusri will fix a number of distribution lines during 2011. The goal for subsidy quota 900,000 tons can be absorbed up by the farmers.
Important Changes by PT Pusri
A number of important changes are being implemented right now is improving the quality of products and implementation strategies in an integrated production-marketing. Concerning the change in this strategy, Arifin explained, organic fertiliser production systems will be done by implementing a partnership. Thereafter the organic fertiliser will also be marketed in an integrated manner by subsidiaries of PT Pusri who will become partners in producing fertiliser.
"So, essentially there are 200 companies that will be a partner in producing organic fertilisers to the partner-200 has a maximum production capacity of 1.5 million tons, but the allocation of subsidies in 2011 was only 900,000 tons, thus the assumption there will be excess production of about 600,000 tons this year, "he said.
From the marketing side, all the subsidiaries (PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja Palembang, PT Petrokimia Gresik, PT Pupuk Kalimantan Timur, PT Pupuk Kujang, PT Pupuk Iskandar Muda) were given the flexibility to package organic fertiliser. So, it’s expected will appear a variety of new brands, such as Organic Pusri or Organic Kujang.
Farmers Group complained Procurement Home Composting Project
Farmers Group in Lampung complained on the realisation of development home composting project procured by the Plantation Office, Food and Forestry Plants Holtikultural of Kabupaten Pringsewu which located in Pekon Sinar Baru.
This was said by Chairman of Commission B DPRD, a district-level parliament of Pringsewu, Irwan Chaniago, accompanied by Secretary of Commission B Zulmar while doing the sudden inspection in Pekon Sinar Baru, Sub-District Pringsewu of Kabupaten Sukoharjo in Lampung Province, on Friday as reported by Tribunnews.com - Friday, March 11, 2011 (19:14 pm). "We conducted unschedule inspection (Sidak) is to ensure the provision of home-related validity of compost and it is true if the machine is not in accordance with what should be given so it cannot be used by groups of farmers," he said.
According to him, should the engine in accordance with the existing file receipts amounted to three units, namely Counting Machine, Filter Machine and Machine grinders.
However, when done unscheduled inspection (Sidak) was found only grinders machine and the machine once used by farmers because they cannot be made to grind. Also during the milling process used to farmers' groups should count the parts that will be milled to make organic fertiliser, the volume of work and hassle.
APP, RPPO, and UPPO
Alat Pengolah Pupuk Organik (APPO) or Organic Fertiliser Processing Equipment in 2007 - a year earlier than organic fertiliser subsidies. In later years refined into Rumah Pengolah Pupuk Organik (RPPO) or home composting format following other facilities since 2009 until now. In addition there is also an organic fertiliser subsidy with relatively cheap price that are categorised in the subsidised fertiliser (chemical and organic), and also the assistance of cattle - all of which is allocated to the state budget.
On paper, it could be described that is 14 x 48 ha = 672 ha per season – which 1 unit APPO = 14 Farmers Group. The basis for calculating the above, is this: If the maximum operating APPO, in one growing season is expected to operate for 30 days, with longer operating about 6 -8 hours per day and a capacity of 1 ton per hour, so the amount of hay that do as much as 240 tons per growing season. Thus 1 unit of APPO will cover 48 ha area (one group of farmers). This a partial information from the Technical Guidelines for Management of APPO, Organic Fertiliser Processing Equipment Development of the Year 2008; published by the Directorate of Land Management of the Directorate General of Land and Water Management Ministry of Agriculture.
APPO included in the budget starting in 2007, then the organic fertiliser subsidies included in the budget starting in 2008. APPO refined into RPPO as contained in Budget 2010, and continued until the State Budget 2011.
One of them visible from the proposal of the Ministry of Agriculture, in particular DG of Land and Water (Ditjend PLA) - As written in the proposed temporary - (now: Director General of Agricultural Infrastructure and Facilities) states: To reduce farmers' dependence on inorganic fertilisers and the reduction of subsidies fertilisers, the future will be built 10,000 units home composting (RPPO), so that farmers can take advantage of organic fertiliser to support farming and not justified farmer groups/ farmer oriented only to the seller of organic fertiliser. That was tentative formulation of the PLA in 2010 Rakorsin Meeting or Coordination and Synchronisation Program Meeting/ Activities TA Land and Water Management in Yogyakarta, February 24, 2010 (Tjahjadi, 2010b).
RPPO according The Technical Guidelines Development Home Compost Year 2009 contained as many as 65 units scattered in 49 districts and 8 provinces. More detail, as said otherwise can be seen in the Appendix 1 of this Technical Guidelines. (But, Gosh… found it empty page).
In the year 2010 included the provision of home compost as much as 235 units were allocated to 33 provinces in Indonesia. Total cost the Indonesian Rp 23.5 billion, with unit price of Rp 100,000,000.
In the year 2011 included the provision of home compost as much as 245 units were allocated to 238 kabupaten /districts in 26 provinces, with focused to only the production centers of foodcrops, but it was no detail price unit mentioned – as to compare to 2010 fiscal year.
Thus, the general public did not get enough information that is easy and clear picture of the performance of flow realisation of procurement RPPO, especially about the number and location of the point of realisation of the procurement APPO / RPPO since 2006 until now. More fundamentally, as of yet there is a financial audit report by the Supreme Audit Board (BPK) to the realisation of APPO & RPPO procurement, so that the accountability of funds for the procurement of technical facilities introduced by the government in developing organic agriculture, especially in paddy fields is questionable.
Another facility to make compost is Unit Pengolah Pupuk Organik (UPPO) or Organic Fertiliser Processing Equipment Unit. In the fiscal year 2011 UPPO with amount 950 units allocated to centers production of foodcrops, horticulture, small scale plantation estate, and centers of husbandry in 276 kabupaten in 32 provinces.
One UPPO consists of 1 home composting, fermentation box, 1 APPO, 1 three-cycle motorbike, 1 cradle for cattle, and cattle or water buffalo (32 female + 3 male). Unfortunately, the Technical Guideline of UPPO in 2011 was not included total budget or cost per insertion of UPPO.
Pedoman teknis Pengelolaan Alat Pengolahan Pupuk Organik Pengembangan APPO Tahun 2008. Direktorat Pengelolaan Lahan Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Lahan dan Air. Departemen Pertanian.
Statistik Pengelolaan Lahan dan Air 2006-2010. Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Lahan dan Air Kementerian Pertanian. Jakarta, Maret 2010.
Pedoman Teknis Pengembangan Rumah Kompos Tahun 2010. Direktorat Pengelolaan Lahan Direktorat Jenderal Pengelolaan Lahan dan Air. Kementerian Pertanian.
Pedoman Teknis Pengembangan Unit Pengolah Pupuk Organik (UPPO) Ditjen PSP Tahun 2011.
Pupuk Organik Kurang Diminati Petani. www.krjogja.com. Kamis, 13 Januari 2011 16:49:00.
Penyerapan Minim, Pusri Ubah Strategi Pemasaran. Kompas, Selasa, 08 Februari 2011.
Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No: 06/Permentan/SR.130/2/2011 Tentang Kebutuhan dan Harga Eceran Tertinggi (HET) Pupuk Bersubsidi untuk Sektor Pertanian Tahun Anggaran 2011. Jakarta 14 Pebruari 2011.
Kelompok Tani Keluhkan Proyek Pengadaan Rumah Kompos.www.Tribunnews.com - Jumat, 11 Maret 2011 19:14 WIB.