Kamis, 07 November 2013

Campaign against biopiracy by Shiseido (1999 - 2002), Retro; Kampanye Tentang Penjarahan hayati oleh Shiseido (1999 - 2002), Kilas balik













Campaign against biopiracy by Shiseido (1999 - 2002), Retro

A compilation





Kampanye Tentang Penjarahan hayati oleh Shiseido (1999 - 2002), Kilas balik

Kompilasi (Bahasa Indonesia, dan Bahasa Inggris, Plus Bahasa Jerman)




Riza V. Tjahjadi
biotani@gmail.com





NGO seminar urges campaign against 'unfair' biopiracy


JAKARTA (JP): Activists urged on Saturday a further delay of the enforcement of trade related aspects of intellectual property rights, which should have begun in January.

In a workshop on the piracy of biological resources, or biopiracy, activists asserted that the interests of local communities, who are said to own these resources, had yet to be protected by law.

The House of Representatives will hold a hearing on Monday with the government about a draft on patent regulation.

"People aren't ready to use patents, and developed countries are abusing this for their own interests," said Tini Hadad, an executive board member of the Indonesian Consumers Foundation.

In view of this Tini said the enforcement of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) here should be delayed.

Indonesia signed the agreement at the World Trade Organization (WTO) conference in Morocco in 1994.

It was ratified in Law No. 13/1997. However, the law is to be reviewed to better meet WTO standarda, thus delaying the agreed time of enforcement, which was set for January 2000.
Riza Tjahjadi, who chairs the Pesticide Action Network in Indonesia, said the hearing was believed to be in anticipation of the review on TRIPS by WTO next June.

State Minister of Environment Sonny Keraf, who addressed the workshop, described biopiracy as a new form of imperialism noting that developed states benefited from developing countries' slow anticipation of patents.

"It's ridiculous if we have to pay to use herbs growing in our land which we've used since ancient times," Sonny said.

The minister said a patent is an acknowledgment of intellectual rights, but added it was not fair to patent biological diversity.

Riza said Shiseido, a well-known Japanese cosmetic firm, had quietly patented several local traditional formulas of herbs and spices.

Among the formulas patented by Shiseido were antiaging agents made from Sambiloto (Andrographis panicurata) and Kemukus (Piper cubeba), and hair tonic from Javanese chili, Riza said. (08)

The Jakarta Post March 20, 2000: NGO seminar urge campaign against 'unfair' biopiracy"





Biopiracy and The New World Order
by Liz Sheridan,
UK Correspondent


In our postmodern, North-South economically divided world, treasures still exist. Since ancient times, Indonesian emperors employed traditional Jamu herbs prescribed by herbal doctors to maintain good health radiance, a youthful appearance, libido and vigour. Jamu, comprising over a thousand formulas, remained the sole property of the Royal Court until modern times, when it was finally released for public sale.1

Now Jamu is under threat ... and Pesticide Action Network2 researcher, Riza Tjahjadi explains that the Shiseido Corporation of Japan,3 cosmetic and skincare Transnational Corporation (TNC) has patented 11 traditional Jamu healing herbs. Since 1999 they are double-patented in both Japan and Europe, reports Mr Tjahjadi. It is not the herbs themselves that have been patented but chemical compounds within the herbs, rare compounds unique to traditional Jamu which effect skin-whitening, hair restoration and skin rejuvenation.

Every time shoppers purchase skin whitening products from Shiseido’s ‘UV White Range’, or the Skin- Whitening Formula priced at circa $150 for a 50ml pot, we are unwittingly supporting Shiseido’s corporate theft.

“This biopiracy by Shiseido means they’ve stolen what belonged to our traditional healers, stolen our farmers knowledge, their seeds and systems,” says Mr Tjahjadi who is lobbying for protective and preventative legislation and insists, “We would like to educate our farmers about their rights, and their ownership rights of their traditional crops. We call farmers’ crops our ‘traditional seeds’, we say these are ‘community intellectual rights’ ... and we would like to have protection for our property against such biopiracy.”

Fact is that the world’s small farmers and poorest, most populous nations don’t have the mega-buck muscle to pay for patent rights. Probably they never felt compelled to patent indigenous varieties. Small farmers such as Jamu herb growers in Indonesia are ‘stewards of the earth’ and believe they own the seeds and plants anyway. The last thing such a small farmer would choose, would be to prove that seeds and agricultural systems inherited down the generations are his intellectual property. In the light of all the patenting and bureaucratic jargon we must ask, why has protecting our farmers’ traditional ‘intellectual property rights’ (IPRs) become so controversial?

Controversy currently surrounds all traditional ownership because ordinary people have become players in a global biotech battle. The stakes are very high, indeed the prize is our natural heritage thinly disguised as a genetic commodity by TNCs and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Mr Tjahjadi is in good company, his grievances are the same as those that fuelled the Seattle protest when 40,000 people rallied against WTO policies in 1999. In Prague last year 15,000 protesters again marched against WTO policies.4 The WTO is targeted because of the sinister role it plays in assisting the TNCs to steal with impunity. However, protesters fear it could soon be too late for direct action ...

¨
Mr Riza Tjahjadi, Pesticide
Action Network Researcher
(photo)


The WTO was inaugurated in 1995. With international headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland and a staff of 550, they ‘administer and enforce more than 20 international agreements, resolve trade disputes between states and provide a forum for global trade negotiations’.5 One of these international agreements is the ‘Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights’ or TRIPS council. The TRIPS legislation is vehemently disputed because its article 27.3 allows patenting of life forms, plants and microorganisms, and microbiological materials.6,7

But first let’s look at how the TRIPS legislation can theoretically benefit the TNCs. Simplifying a complex procedure such as genetic modification (GM) we could say that biochemists normally splice a ‘sticky end’ (a grouping of molecular material including a virus) into an original cell, grow a GM variety of the original, then submit patenting applications as if a new ‘life form’ was created. After which they market it globally as if it belonged to them, and WTO protects their business interests through the TRIPS legislation. Simple sticky ends .......

It is clear that most of WTO’s 135 member nations joined in order to protect their national economic interests against various aspects of economic fascism. WTO’s role is that of a powerbroker in an unelected world government intent on protecting the corporate/elitist agendas and business interests of the New World Order (NWO). NWO  comprises WTO, the World Bank, United Nations, International Monetary Fund, the Business Round   Table, Club of Rome and a massive web of various interlinked but unelected organisations. (Including recently formed Food Authorities, Health Regulatory bodies, and soon the WTO’s ‘General Agreement on Trade in Services’ (GATS) will mean that the world’s public services8 will also be corporatised.)

Many of these organisations are partially funded by taxpayers’ money or government grants – effectively taxpayers subsidise the unelected ‘shadow’ world government, the NWO. Many business networks exist within the NWO infrastructure, such as those that legitimise the theft and confiscation of global Intellectual Property Rights (IPR).

In the Philippines the theft of Asian rice varieties is one aspect of biopiracy being challenged by lawyers, Benjamin Ramos Jr and Mario Denito. As Board Members of MASIPAG, a Non-Government Organisation (NGO), they represent the interests of 900,000 farmers, farming families, scientists and other legal experts. MASIPAG, like PAN, is part of a larger grouping of NGOs in the region, and throughout the world, fighting to protect local small farmers’ rights. The stakes are so high that all small farmers obviously need NGO assistance to retain ownership of traditional systems, resources and traditional seed varieties. According to Mr Ramos, “Half a million people signed a petition to register their solidarity against the patenting of life. We had a MASIPAG conference in February 1999 and presented that petition to the Department of Agriculture and also the Department of Agrarian Reform.”  The biotech TNCs would be well advised to listen to the opinions of both protesters and NGO representatives, but they are too busy reproducing themselves.

SYNGENTA, the world’s biggest biotech TNC, was created when NOVARTIS and ZENECA merged on 10 October 1999 in Basel, Switzerland (with European Union permission). They plan to integrate seed corporations into their ‘life sciences’ division, chemical divisions into a ‘crop protection’ group, and also operate pharmaceutical ‘healthcare’ corporations.

They hope to reinvent new forms of pharmaceuticals and are ‘moving from the seed business to food and pharmaceuticals’.9 AVENTIS is the second largest biotech TNC and MONSANTO, until recently biotech market leader, is now third largest. According to Bill Wadsworth, senior food technologist in the food retail industry itself a corporation manufacturing and retailing food,  every biotech market-leader is trying to be the first to ‘spin’ protein in laboratories within ten years, then to market laboratory-food globally.

These corporations will make their true GM business agenda known to the public slowly and deliberately. They might even engineer a few major global food disasters so, ‘standard-equivalent,10 safe and nutritionally excellent GM lab-food’ will be welcomed into a currently GM wary market to ease shortages. We must never forget the biotech TNC’s gruesome past. As the world’s chemical giants, they sprayed agrichemicals into soil and food chain, forcing it down our throats for the past 50 years.11 Although patenting and GM is the second wave, the first wave of chemical madness still severely chemically poisons three million people annually, and more than 20,000 of those may die.12 Great advertising for such a dedicated good-news industry!

For example, rural suicide is a plague in countries like Sri Lanka where impoverished rice farmers often use chemicals to poison themselves, their debt/desperation cycle often caused, ironically by chemical farming.13


Every biotech market-leader is trying to be the first to ‘spin’ protein in laboratories within ten years, then to market laboratory-food globally They might even engineer a few major global food disasters


In the past five decades the world’s traditional organic agricultural systems were supposedly ‘upgraded’, but really they were usurped by greedy multinational chemical companies interested in profit. This ‘industrial advancement’ meant reliance on agrichemicals and artificial chemical fertiliser inputs, which were of course ‘safe and effective’. These were essential to maintain newlyintroduced broad-acre farming systems, producing so-called ‘conventional’ food which Joe Public was assured would be safe and, ‘feed the world’. Today’s GM marketing uses the same cynical ‘feed the world’ slogan, and biotech TNCs reassure public of ‘safety’ and ‘benefits’.......

TNC biotechs may be challenged to win the lab-food race but in southern lands the unrelenting legal battle to save many varieties of indigenous plants continues. Rice is the staple diet for over half the world’s population and also under greatest threat from patenting and GM. According to MASIPAG researchers approximately 160 biotech-patents are owned by TNCs, and 13 biotech corporations also hold most of the patents on rice. Since May 2000, according to MASIPAG, the International Rice Research Institute funded a project to grow a trial crop of ‘BB rice’, so-called because it is genetically engineered to resist bacterial blight. MASIPAG opposed the project and Mr Ramos explains that ‘BB rice’ will inevitably contaminate other rice varieties.

There should, he insists, be a minimum ten year moratorium on GE because it endangers existing crops and food security. Amongst the bleak ‘sticky ends’ of GM there is some good news for Indian Basmati rice growers, reported in the Hindustan Times, New Delhi, India on 27 September 2000:

“In a major success for India’s effort to retain its commercial interest on Basmati rice exports, Ricetec Inc, a Texan-based US company, which had obtained a patent for ‘Basmati rice lines and grains’, has been forced to withdraw certain claims in its US patent.”..... “Ricetec Inc has now withdrawn the claims, which could have adversely affected the commercial interests of Basmati rice exporters.”

And Mr Tjahjadi adds, “Biopiracy is already happening everywhere, not just here .... why should we have to pay for using our own traditional herbs?” Southern and indigenous groups, he hopes, will be able to defend themselves against biopiracy and GM. But on the other hand TNCs would not feed the world; bring safe food to the marketplace; pay restitution for reducing biodiversity and fertility by 50 per cent; 14 or compensate poisoned people’s families  or  infertilecouples. That is why billions of global citizens care about the ravages of biopiracy and the TRIPS legislation, and some are brave enough to mobilise against economic fascism.


New World (dis)Order
The New World Order was mentioned in a CNN sound-byte by President Bush, during the Gulf War (1991) when he stated that the NWO would use the Rule of Law to enforce international peace. The US government speech writers/PR spindoctors must have realised this gaffe had antagonised the public who should remain ignorant of their government’s hidden agendas, and that was the last we officially heard of NWO. The secret government is part of the NWO, but many people still believe the NWO is a wacky conspiracy theory ...... and now that Mr Bush Jnr is President of the US, we can expect the Republican Party to push ahead with their globalisation plans. To protect our own interests, people should rally against globalisation because it is being used to destroy much that we hold sacred. However, a word of warning - do not believe any of the ‘spin’. patent.”..... “Ricetec Inc has now withdrawn the claims, which could have adversely affected the commercial interests of Basmati rice exporters.”


Note:
1. Interview, 5 February 2001: Neil Lopez, NZ Jamu importer distributor.
2. Pesticide Action Network (PAN), a global network, researching, documenting andlobbying against the use of agri-chemicals, more recently GE, biotechnology and patenting technologies.

You can make a difference by joining PAN (New Zealand).
Contact Alison White re membership/
campaigns.Phone: (04) 476 8607.
Email:alisonmwhitenz@yahoo.co.uk
Write (including NZ$10 cheque for annual
membership) to: Alison White, Pesticide
Action Network, PO Box 43199,
Wainuiomata, Wellington, 6008.
3. Lobby Shiseido: Mr Gemma CEO, Shiseido Corporation, International Business Department, 3rd Floor, Asahi Building, Ginza 6-6-7 Chuo Ku, Tokyo, 104-0061, Japan.
4. Paul Kingsnorth, Seeds of The New in the Prague Autumn, The Ecologist, Volume 30
no 8, November 2000.
5. Simon Retallack, After Seattle: Where Nex for the WTO?, The Ecologist, Volume 30
no 2, April 2000. Website: www.the ecologist.com For more information on post-Seattle events: www.tradewatch.org;
www.50years.org; www.ifg.org
6. Interview, September 2000: Peter Ungphakorn, Public Information Unit,
WTO, Geneva, Switzerland. Email:peter.ungphakorn@wto.org
7. MASIPAG publishing, Biopiracy TRIPS and the Patenting of Asia’s Rice Bowl, May 1998. Email: masipag@mozcom.com
8. Maude Barlow, The Last Frontier, The Ecologist, Volume 31 no 1, February 2001.
9. Interview, September 2000: Felix Raeber, Corporate Communications director, Syngenta, Basel, Switzerland. Email: raeber@group. syngenta. com
Website:www.syngenta.com
10. Standard equivalence: term used by the GM industry to assume that a GM produce has the same properties for example as a conventional tomato, so the GM tomato is equivalent to its counterpart. Standard equivalence is an industry norm in the US, the method by which biotech corporations bypass food safety issues and release GM food without adequate scientific testing.
11. Graham Harvey, The Killing of the Countryside, Jonathan Cape, London, 1997.
12. WHO figures, 1992. No more recent statistics are yet available.
13. Lasanda Kurukulasuriya, New Internationalist, no 331, Jan/Feb 2001.
Website: www.newint.org
14. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future, Dutton, New York, USA, 1996

See: Bio-piracy, Liz Sheridan, Healthy options magazine, New Zealand. Apr ‘01 • Healthy Options page 31-33.
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THE GOVERNMENT COMMENTS:

"The government will support people's initiative against biopiracy, and the minister on  research and technology have also already discussed about issue of biopiracy," said the Director General of Intellectual  Property Rights, Zen Umar Purba, as response to PAN Indonesia, when asked the government position to biopiracy, at terrace of Acacia Hotel after his presentation in the ASEAN Workshop on the TRIPS Agreement and  Traditional Medicine 13 February 2001, Jakarta.

However, PAN Indonesia insisted that the government should responsible and taking care the issue at court level.

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SHISEIDO BIOPIRACY TO TRADITIONAL HERBAL PLANTS OF INDONESIA
By Biotani PAN Indonesia

Background:
The use of plants for healing in Indonesia dates back to prehistoric times. It has a long history of traditional use, handed down orally from generation to generation. The oldest and the most  widespread is the jamu - an Indonesian term referring to the indigenous herbal medicine and system, which originated in Java and eventually spread to neighboring Bali and the rest of Indonesia. Recently, jamu stand form,the industrial traditional herbal. Jamu is traditionally used by the Javanese not just to cure a certain disease but more so to restore equilibrium through the human body's own resistance - prevention is also another word. Among its multiple uses are the maintenance of good health, beauty care,to regulate menstruation, and weight loss.

Patent:
Indonesia's herbal medicines and knowledge has become the Subject of a series of Japanese patent applications by Shiseido Co. Ltd., Japan's largest beauty products company. One of the patents being sought is on hair tonic based on Cabe Jawa (Piperaceae) while another claims a composition based on a crude medicine composed of Orang aring (Eclipta alba), Jangkang (Sterculia foetida), Meniran (Phyllanthuss niruri), Mrico bolong (Melaleuca leucandindra) and Temu kunci (Boesenbergia pandurata). Both of these patents are based on the traditional medicine and knowledge of Indonesian people. In 1995 alone, more than 35 herbal plants from Indonesia have been the subjects of more than 20 patent applications by Shiseido in Japan.

Lempuyang, another popular cosmetic jamu, has also been a subject of Many patents (WO09963950A1, JP10029924A, JP09169628A, JP09169627A, JP09071522A; patents as issued by Japan Patent office) for its anti-aging properties and moisture-retention properties. Already, in 1999, Shiseido successfully launched a new line of skin whitening products based on lempuyang extract. (challenge: filling out the traditional use of some of these plants especially Cabe Jawa and Lempuyang -  as to determine whether it is the same property patented by Shiseido).

Implications:
Some are directly referred to be used as folk medicines (traditionallym known as "jamu"). Products have been developed, for example Shiseido Fine Toiletry in 1998 launched a new facial cleansing soap called "Rajam" Which has been developed based on jamu folk medicine in Bali island. It contains "Jamu" made by compounding Asian herbs.

How will it impact the economy? In global terms, the estimated market for traditional remedies is at US$2 billions, with Japan accounting for sales of US$920 mil and China US$500 million. The market for Indonesian traditional remedies, locally known as jamu is estimated at US$150 mil  (1992) of which 20% is for premium-priced products. Indonesian herbal medicine exports totaled 2,393 tons valued at US$29 mil in 1997, vs 4,903 tons in 1996, and 1,800 tons valued at US$21.9 mil in 1994 where the top importer continues is Saudi Arabia.

Will it impact on small peoples' livelihood? Thousands of Banyumas residents in Central Java, as one of illustrations, depend on the jamu industry for their livelihood. Currently, rough estimation, at least 6,000 people are employed by about 400 jamu enterprises in Cilacap and Banyumas. Again, this one of examples.

In Central Java as centre of jamu industry, as reported by Bisnis Indonesia (24 January 2001).  officially recorded around 95 enterprises,but in real activities only 50 enterprises. By classification, there are 6 big companies, with 7 medium enterprises, small scale 78, and simplisia 2 companies; all locates in Semarang, Kedu,  Surakarta, Pati, Tegal Cilacap and Kedu.

How will it impact on long held culture? Herbal medicine had been used since the ancient time and continues to be consumed by people of different level; lower, middle and upper, in the villages and in the big cities. One could buy easily ready made jamu packed modernly in the form of powder, pills, capsules, drinking liquid and ointments. There are still jamu street vendor or tiny shops, which sell only ingredients or prepare the jamu on spot as required by buyers.

Some women still roam in the street - peddled remedies (jamu Gendong) or may use motorcycles or push carts - to sell ready to drink jamu, a Common view across the country. The traditional methods of making jamu such as by boiling the prepared herbal ingredients (jamu godok) still prevail in Javanese society. The popular traditional tools of making jamu are stillavailable in many Javanese houses.

The traditional medicine system in Indonesia is shaped by its wealth of biological and cultural diversity. Jamu flourished because of a dynamic system of exchanges of new knowledge and uses of herbal medicines between various cultural groups. The imposition of private ownership and commodification of these resources and knowledge disrupts the  traditional medical systems in place. Plants and even jamu formulations have been collected, knowledge have been extracted and patented for the benefit of a few stockholders and later on further worked on and sold to those able to pay the price. In spite of the availability of modern medicine, still more than 70% of Indonesian people depend heavily on jamu. Presently, it plays an important component of Indonesia's national health care system. It  also plays a major role in the economy, creating job opportunities especially in the rural areas, especially during the multi dimensional crisis since July 1997.    (foresee to be the possible impact on the health care system, figured out whether they collected materials from Indonesia and whether they did it in compliance with Convention on Biological Diversity  i.e. prior informed consent and benefit sharing)
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Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)


Article 27: Patentable Subject Matter
3.   Members may also exclude from patentability: (b) plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However, Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
There are extraordinary problems with Article 27.3(b) of the TRIPS Agreement:
1.    No parameters for what a 'sui generis' system can amount to.
2.    No parameters for what is 'effective'.
3.    Many WTO members have expressed their view that genes and microbiological processes are not inventions and therefore are not patentable subject matter.
4.    With its lack of any benefit-sharing mechanism, TRIPS offers no remedy for the ongoing wave of biopiracy and is perceived as exacerbating the problem.
5.    There is a bias ingrained in TRIPS to protect breeders and biotechnologists at the expense of farmers and local communities.
6.    Many countries perceive a conflict between TRIPS and the rights and obligations countries previously acquired under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
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Source: The last part of a brochure. entiteled: Shiseido Biopiracy to traditional herbal plants of Indonesia. SHISEIDO. Feature article: BIO_PIRACY/LIZ SHERIDAN in http://www.healthyoptiops.co.nz, published by
PAN Indonesia/Feb_2001/biopiracy_Shiseido;  circulated during the ASEAN Workshop on the TRIPS Agreement and  Traditional Medicine 13 February 2001, Jakarta.
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Indonesia Hadapi Kasus Shiseido

 

Sejak awal tahun 1990an kasus pencurian hayati di Indonesia sudah marak terjadi di Indonesia. Namun, sejauh ini hal tersebut kurang mendapat perhatian termasuk oleh pihak perintah. Pada dasa warsa lalu, Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Indonesia telah mensinyalir adanya kegiatan kapal Amerika Serikat yang membawa peralatan medis ke Irian Jaya. Sebagaimana dikemukakan Riza V Tjahjadi (dari PAN Indonesia ) mereka melakukan pengambilan sampel darah orang-orang dari suku Ngalun. Diduga kuat hal itu bertujuan untuk meneliti gen darah suku tersebut, untuk mencari alternatif pengobatan malaria. Sejauh ini belum ada berita hasil penelitian tersebut. Pematenan gen secara ilegal.

Sudah dilakukan oleh sebuah perusahaan di Amerika Serikat. Perusahaan itu mematenkan gen dari suku Hagai di kepulauan Pasifik. Kini mereka telah menghadapi gugatan. Di Indonesia, kasus yang sama dilakukan oleh perusahaan Jepang Shiseido, yang mematenkan gen yang berasal dari Indonesia di lembaga paten Jepang, dengan mengklaim atas nama mereka. Selain itu mereka juga telah melakukan proteksi ganda dengan mematenkannya di lembaga paten Eropa. Menurut Riza, hal itu harus digugat oleh pihak Indonesia. Sepatutnya pemerintah menuntut mereka seperti yang dilakuan India terhadap merek beras Basmati yang digunakan perusahaan Amerika Serikat.

Kasus Shiseido selama ini diangkat oleh PAN Indonesia ke berbagai forum. Namun menurut Riza hendaknya tidak sampai di situ. Perusahaan itu harus dituntut ke pengadilan. Dalam kaitan ini diakuinya bahwa Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) tidak mampu melakukan itu terbatasnya dana. Ia menyanyangkan perintah tidak tahu masalah pembajakan hayati Indonesia. Hal itu paparnya tercermin dalam undang undang Keragaman Hayati yang jelas tidak memberi perlindungan pada plasma nutfah di Indonesia. Dalam pasal 7 Undang Undang tersebut disebutkan bahwa makluk hidup tidak dapat dipatenkan, kecuali jasat renik. Menurut Riza,seharusnya larangan juga diperlakukan pada jasat renik, karena itu juga menjadi sumber kehidupan dan mempunyai nilai bisnis yang tinggi. (yun)
Kompas, 14 Juli 2001).


                    




Boikot Perusahaan Pembajak
Hayati Tanaman Indonesia


KOMPAS, 18 Juli 2001

Indonesia harus bersikap tegas terhadap pembajakan hayati (biopiracy) dari negara ini, dengan cara memboikot perusahaan yang melakukan hal tersebut. Sebagai wilayah yang memiliki sumber hayati tertinggi di dunia, praktik ilegal itu jelas merugikan. Pembajakan hayati nyatanya telah dilakukan perusahaan kosmetika Jepang-Shiseido. Oleh karena itu, Indonesia harus memboikot perusahaan ini dan menggugatnya di pengadilan.

Riza V Tjahjadi dari Pesticide Action Network Indonesia mengemukakan hal itu di Jakarta. Dikatakan, dengan mematenkan secara diam-diam tanaman obat  dan rempah yang telah digunakan sejak zaman nenek moyang bangsa Indonesia, perusahaan kosmetik Jepang ini telah memiliki sembilan paten.

Untuk paten perawatan kepala bernomor registrasi JP 10316541, subyek yang dipatenkan meliputi, Kayu Rapet (Parameria laevigata), Kemukus (Piper cubeba), Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L), Belantas (Pluchea indica L), Mesoyi (Massoia aromatica Becc), Pule (Alstonia scholaris), Pulowaras (Alycia reindwartii Bl), dan Sintok (Cinnamomum sintoc BL). Selain itu , nama tanaman lain yang termasuk dalam subyek yang dipatenkan adalah kayu legi, kelabet, lempuyang, remujung, dan brotowali. Semua tanaman itu terbagi dalam tiga paten, yang kesemuannya merupakan bahan anti-penuaan.

Untuk perawatan kulit, didaftar nama tanaman Wolo (Borassus flabellifer), Regulo (Abel moschus moschatus), dan Bunga Cangkok (Schima wallichii). Sedangkan estrak cabai jawa dari Piperaceacae didaftar untuk paten tonik rambut. Paten dari lembaga paten Jepang untuk tanaman asli Indonesia itu, selain berkhasiat  anti-penuaan juga untuk perawatan kepala dan kulit. Selain mematenkan di Jepang, tambah Riza, untuk tujuan double protection Shiseido mendaftarkan bahan atau subyek yang sama di lembaga Paten Eropa.

Tentang kasus itu, papar Riza, PAN Indonesia telah menanyakan kepada Shiseido apa cakupan paten  itu, dan dampaknya  bagi rakyat Indonesia. Menurut dia, sungguh celaka jika bangsa Indonesia harus minta izin dulu jika ingin memakai  tanaman yang  sebetulnya  sudah lama ada dipekarangan rumahnya, kepada pihak Jepang. “Ironis juga jika kita membayar royalti ke Jepang, jika kita meracik ramuan paten Shiseido untuk kosmetika  kita. Bersiap-siaplah diisap atau lawanlah paten itu dengan malakukan boikot,” tegasnya.

Ia juga menekankan perlunya keterlibatan pemerintah untuk mengatasi masalah ini dengan melakukan gugatan melalui pengadilan  di Jepang. Hal ini untuk menunjukan kepada dunia tentang keseriusan Indonesia melindungi kekayaan hayatinya dan memberi pelajaran kepada pihak asing untuk tidak melakukan hal serupa.
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Shiseido Batalkan Paten Rempah Indonesia

KOMPAS, 26 Maret 2002

Setelah sempat diramaikan oleh beberapa lembaga swadaya masyarakat Indonesia, Shiseido akhirnya membatalkan permohonan registrasi paten  yang menggunakan tanaman obat dan rempah asli Indonesia untuk keperluan kosmetika, yang sebelumnya telah diajukan ke Kantor Paten di Tokyo, Jepang.

Demikian siaran pers dari Shiseido Jepang baru-baru ini. Perusahaan kosmetika tersebut di Indonesia diwakili oleh PT Dian Tarunaguna dengan outlet dibeberapa pusat perbelanjaan Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Malang, dan Bali.

Shiseido mengakui, penarikan kembali  semua permohonan  paten itu karena pihaknya menyadari bahwa tanaman hayati Indonesia yang termasuk dalam permohonan patennya ternyatra telah menjadi bahan baku obat dan kosmetika tradisional sejak zaman dulu yang dikenal luas sebagai jamu.

“Pembatalan ini sekaligus untuk memenuhi harapan berbagai pihak yang terlibat dalam penanganan sumber daya hayati Indonesia agar memperkenalkan tanaman obat dan rempah Indonesia sebagai produk Indonesia,” demiian siaran pers tersebut.

Sejak tahun 1995, Shiseido telah mengajukan 51 permohonan paten tanaman obat dan rempah asli Indonesia. Menurut peraturan kantor paten Jepang, permohonan paten itu harus melewati 18 bulan pertama agar diketahui publik, lalu setelah tujuh tahun-peraturan ini berubah menjadi tiga tahun sejak Oktober 2001-mengajukan permohonan untuk diuji lagi. Setelah itu barulah paten diregister untuk jangka waktu 20 tahun.

Shiseido juga mengajukan tiga paten lainnya ke Inggris, Jerman, Perancis, dan Italia. Namun, tidak ada penjelasan apakah ketiga paten ini terkait dengan tanaman obat dan rempah Indonesia dan ditarik juga permohonannya.

Sembilan Paten
Tahun lalu, Riza V Tjahjadi dari Pesticide Action Network Indonesia mengingatkan, Shiseido diam-diam telah mematenkan tanaman obat dan rempahyang telah digunakan bangsa Indonesia  sejak zaman nenek moyang. Menurut Riza, perusahaan kosmetika Jepang ini telah memiliki sembilan paten.

Paten itu tercakup dalam paten perawatan kepala bernomor registrasi JP 10316541, dengan subyek Kayu Rapet (Parameria laevigata), Kemukus (Piper cubeba), Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis), Blantas (Pluchea indica L), Mesoyi (Massoia aromatica), Pule (Alstonia scholaris), Pulowaras (Alycia reindwartii Bl), dan Sintok (Cinnamomun sintoc Bl). Selain itu, nama tanaman lain yang termasuk dalam subyek yang dipatenkan adalah kayu legi, Kelabet, lempuyang, remujung, dan brotowali. “Semua tanaman itu terbagi dalam tiga paten, yang kesemuannya merupakan bahan anti penuaan,” ujar Riza.

Untuk perawatan kulit, didaftarkan nama tanaman Wolo (Borassus Flabellifer), Regulo (Abelmoschus moschatus), dan Bunga Cangkok (Schima Wallichii), Sedang estrak cabai jawa dari Piperaceae didaftar untuk paten tonik rambut.

Menurut, Riza paten ini amat merugikan bangsa Indonesia karena harus meminta izin dan bahkan membayar royalti ke pihak Shiseido,  bila mau menggunakan tanaman yang tumbuh di pekarangan rumahnya.

Tentang hal itu Shiseido menjelaskan, di antara  paten-paten yang diajukan hanya satu yang sudah diregistrasi di Jepang, yaitu ramuan yang menggunakan bahan  baku lempuyang untuk pemutih kulit. Jadi, menurut Shiseido, bukan tanaman lempuyang sebagai bahan baku yang dipatenkan, sehingga bangsa Indonesia tetap bisa memanfaatkannya. (nes)
Sumber: diketik dari Harian Kompas, Selasa 26 Maret 2002.







18 2002

Reprint the story Shiseido biopiracy


to: Action for World Development
cc: liz512000@yahoo.com


Halo Denny,

Did you know that Shiseido has canceled her patents to native plant/ herbals that I had accused her as biopirating to Indonesian spices?

Meaning I on behalf of the Indonesian has win in a non-litigation battle.

It was reported in the biggest daily newspaper, Kompas on 26 March 2002.

This an additional.

rgds,

Riza VT


From: Action for World Development  
Subject: Re: biopiracy 
To: "Riza_V_Tjahjadi"  
Date: Jun 17 2002 15:44 

Hello Riza,
Many thanks for your permission - we will also need the permission of Liz Sheridan from healthy options magazine, who I presume wrote the original article? Can you advise a contact email for her please?

Regards,
Denny

>Halo Denny,
>
>You are welcome re-publish that article. One sentence I would like to
>stress that the government should or must responsible to takle biopiracy
>issue into the court, whenever had been articulated by NGOs/CSOs. This
>will make easier for NGOs/CSOs assess or investigate another case.
>----
>riza_v_tjahjadi
>

New patent applications from Shiseido, info sharing
> From:Ruth Tippe > Subject:New patent applications from Shiseido
> To:"Riza VT"
> Date:Sep 5 2002 16:02
>
> Dear Riza,
> how are you?
> I found two new patent applications from Shiseido, both with extracts
> from many plants. The names of the plants are exotic for me. The
> applications are written in Japanese. The abbreviation is in English.
> Do you want to look into?
> It is WO 02/051428 and WO 02/051374
> You can find it in www.european-patent-office.org and there in "epoline".
>
> All the best!
> Yours,
> Ruth
>
> ----
> Riz_V_Tjahjadi
<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>


From:Ruth Tippe Subject:New patent applications from Shiseido 
To:"Riza VT"  
Date:Sep  5  2002  16:02

Dear Riza,
how are you?
I found two new patent applications from Shiseido, both with extracts from many plants. The names of the plants are exotic for me. The applications are written in Japanese. The abbreviation is in English.
Do you want to look into?
It is WO 02/051428 and WO 02/051374
You can find it in www.european-patent-office.org and there in "epoline". 
All the best!
Yours,
Ruth

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>

From: Ruth Tippe Subject: Re: Individual response to Sarawak  
To: "Riza_V_Tjahjadi"  
Date: Aug 9 2002 11:08 

 
Dear Riza,
thank you for forwarding the email of Glen Malliet.
So, I saw that Shiseido has cancelled their patent. I looked also at EP 1002515 (WO 99/63950). It is also at the European Patent Office withdrawn since the 24.01.2002. A success for you!
All the best!
Yours,
Ruth

----- Original Message -----
From: Riza_V_Tjahjadi
To: biotani2002a@yahoo.com
Cc: biotani@rad.net.id
Sent: Friday, August 09, 2002 4:04 PM
Subject: Fwd: Individual response to Sarawak

Dear Ruth
(…)

Shiseido has canceled her patents to native plant/ herbals that I had accused her as biopirating to Indonesian spices?

Meaning I on behalf of the Indonesian has win in a non-litigation battle.

It was reported in the biggest daily newspaper, Kompas on 26 March 2002.


rgds,

Riza VT
---







List of Campaign and lobby on biodiversity piracy (biopiracy) in case of Shiseido
Campaign:
1. Alert message on regular basis to international community, including posting to
Shiseido e-dress, through circulating e-mail (end 1999 to early 2002)
2. Conducting semi-workshop on Biopiracy with keynote speaker the state minister on environment (18 March 2000) . This case was oneof example to develop position and policy setting to the state minister on environment to the issue on TRIPs while the minister has asked re-formulation to the draft on revision of the 1997 Patent Act to the minister on justice and human right (although the state minister on environment has not successfully his advocacy to pending and/or re-formulation of the patent articles on lifeforms, at least, his staffs began aware about biopiracy issues and problems).
3. Media briefing to journalist and freelancer about biopiracy with the case of Shiseido. The results shown the biggest daily newspaper reporting several times as well as the English newspaper (Indonesia version will be sent if necessary). Meanwhile a New Zealand magazine published it into a special feature column.
4. Teach-in and awareness to grassroot communities, esp. indigenous peoples in remote areas; circulating hardcopy of content of the campaign.
5. Display and circulate campaign kit on the case of Shiseido at, almost every, public meetings and seminar on WTO and/or trade globalisation by civil society.

Lobby
1. Lobby to both director general on IPR, as well as parliament (esp. trade commission) on biopiracy (2000-2001).Quotation:
"The government will support people's initiative against biopiracy. I and the minister on research and technology have also already discussed about issue of biopiracy, " said the director general of Intellectual Property Rights, Zen Umar Purba, as response to PAN Indonesia, when asked the government position to biopiracy, at terrace of Acacia Hotel after his presentation in the ASEAN Workshop on the TRIPS Agreement and Traditional Medicine on13 February  2001, Jakarta.
2. Basic info dissemination to a Japanese law firm in Indonesia office (2001) as the lawyers willing to learn about biopiracy.
3. Briefing to Japanese lawyers about the case, via internet communication (2000-2001), including a news reporter from a Japanese TV station, NHK (July 2001).
At the end, Shiseido announced her cancellation of patenting the native crops with Indonesia‘ names by directly lobby to Kompas daily newspaper, as to improve her public image. A day after 03/22/2002) Kompas daily newspaper put Shiseido statement into news report column. (concerns about the very sensitive issue: anti-Japanese such as has had happened by mass riot in 1974, I guessed also play important factor in thedecision making process and consideration by Shiseido).
---




The Case of Shiseido as quoted by student of Freire Universitat Berlin

Rusgiarto, Sascha (2002) "Biopiratie" versus traditionelles Wissen - Ist ein Interessenaughleich zwischen transnationallen Unternehmen und Entwicklungslandern möglich. Diplomarbeit. Freire Universitat Berlin. Otto-Sulu Institut f ur Politikwissenschaft. Oktober 2002.

 (...)
3.3 Lempuyang, kayu rapet u.a - community knowledge" aus Indonesien

Einen kleinen  konnte 2002 die Indonesien NGO Pesticide Action Network (PAN) feiern, denn das welweit viertgroBe Kosmetickunternnehmen Shiseido Corporation sah sich nach Boykottaufrufen dazu geswungen, einige seiner Patente in Japan Offizieil zuruckzuziehen (Kompas 17.7.2002).

Zur Vorgeschicte: Sey 1995 hat die Shiseido Corp. Patente in Japan und Europa auf wirkstoffe angelmeldet, die aus Ptlanzen isoliert worden, die nur in Indonesien, konkret auf Java, verkommen, Die Forschung basierte auf traditionellen javanishen Kosmetikprodukten. die im zuge der nationalled Verbreitung von Jamu mittlereile in ganz Indonesien erhältlich sind (vgl. Kap. II.2.1) Shiseido meldete mehrfach Teilpatente an (JP10029924A, JP0916938A u.a.), die durch das japanische Patentant (JPO) und das Europaische Patentant (EPA) erteilt wurden. In den Patentantragen wurden sogar die traditonallen Indonesischen un javanishen Namen aufgefurhy und die Indonesischen Herkunftsregionen benanmt. Ein klarer Hinweis auf Biopirateri.
Im jahre 1999 brachte Shiseido die kommerzielle Anwendung des Patents auf den Lempuyang-Wirkstoff unter dem Namen "UV White Range" bzw. der "Skin Whittening Formula" auf den Markt. PAN  erachtet den Boykott dieser Produkte fur gerechtfertigt, denn Konsumenten wurden mit den 150 US$, die sie fur diese Produkte zahlen, den "corporate theft" unwissentlich unterstutzen (vgl, PAN 2001a).

Im selben Jahr rief PAN zu einem Boykott von Shiseido Produkten auf und fordete einen Ruckzug der Patente durch  Shiseido bzw. einen Entzug durch das JPO und EPA Dabei wurde PAN von aderen NGOs unterstutzt. z.B. durch die Indonesische Konsumentenverenegung. Deren  Vorstandsmitglied Tini Hadad kristisierte besonders das TRIPS-Ankommen: "People aren't ready to use patents, and developed countries are abusing this for their own interest" (Jakarta Post 20.3.2000). Auch von Regierungsseite fand der Protest Zustimmung. Der damalige Umweltminister Sony Keraf sah in der Biopiraterie eine neue Form von Imperialismus und bezog sich suf die patentierung Indonesiachen traditionallen Wissens und biologishen materials. als er sagte: "It's ridiculous if we have to pay to use herbs growing in our landwhich we're use since ancient times" (ebd,).

Die breite Protestfront ist sicherlich auch zu einem wesentlichen Teil auf die stetig wachsende Jamu-Industrie zuruckzufuhren, die die Patente Shiseidos im Hinblick auf zukunftige Exportmarkte sehr kritisch einordnen musste. Laut FAO betrug 1995 das jahrliche Volumen des nationalen Jamu-marktes 350 millionen US$. W?hrend sich die Exporte lediglich auf 9 millionen US$ beliefen (FAO 1995), wird der Markt fur Jamu trotz der Asienkrise 1998 als zukunftsträchtig eigenschätzt. Der Indonesische Jamu-Markt ist grundsätzlich nicht duch Patente aufgeteilt, vielmehr opereren die Unternehmen anhand gut  eingefurhrter Handelmarken (Trademarks). Im interview mit dem Autor kundigte Riza V. Tjahjadi, der sprecher von PAN, ebenfalls masiven Protest an, solte ein nationales Unternehmen von diesem Grundsatz abweichen. Denn hinschtlich eines Patente ware lediglich die industrille Anwemdung anzuerkennen, ansosten beruhe Jamu auf Leistungen der traditionallen Gemmeinschaften. Im Falle von Shiseido sei gerade diese Tatsache ausgeblender worden. Riza erklärte, dass Shiseido einen Vertrag mit dem Königshaus von Yogyakarta, dem Kraton, abgeschlossen hatte, dessen Bedingungen aber nicht offentlich gemacht wurden. Zwar sei Jamu traditionell such am Hof produziert worden, aber die Wissensbestande des Kraton hätten sich aus dem Wissen der indigenen Gemeinschaften und lokalen Gruppen der Region gespeist. Daher sei dieser vertrag nich gerechtfertigt (interview Tjahjadi 2002).

Wie die Verbindung der Universitat von Simbabwe mit Pythera zeige, agieren TNCs heute nicht länger ohne Partner und Vertrage. Auch Shiseido schloss zwar einen Vertrag mit dem Kraton ab, aber wieder einmal wurden die Interessen und Rechte der local community nicht beruksichtigt. Troz des vorläufigen Erfolges bleibt PAN skeptisch gegenuber dem zukunftigen Geschäftsgebaren von Shiseido, zumal die Patente in Europa bestehen bleiben. "They've stolen what belongs to our traditional healer. [...] We call farmer's crops  our traditional seeds, we say these are community intellectual right", verdeutlichte Riza in einer Erklarung zum jungsten Patentrukz?g die Position PANs, und die Position der Bauern bezeichnete er als von "Steward to earth" (ISIS 2002).
p.32-34
(...) Darin wurden verschiendene Falle von Biopiraterie dargestellt und es wurde auf die Unzul?nglichkeiten der bestehenden Patentregelungen hinsichtlich des Schutzes von traditionellem Wissen hingeweissen. Das Unverständnis der USA fur diese Problematic wurde später im WTO Bulletin zusammengefasst: "Whilst there where often disputes about whether something was patent-worthy, the US noted that examples in India' paper had been successfully addressed. The US was not sure it accept that there was a phenomenon that could be termed "bio-piracy" (zitiert nach PAN 2001b: 23).
p. 36
 (...)
 (...) Unterschiedliche Einschätzungen, wann Kenntnis uber eine Sachlage besteht und wer alles  seine Zustimmung geben muss, bergen weiteres Konfliktpotenzial, wie die obigen Biopirateriefalle  gezeigt haben. Shiseido hatte zwar einen Vertrag mit dem Kraton abgeschlossen und somit dessen Zustimmung, aber die local community wurde nicht befragt (...) Im Fall von Shiseido bedeutet dieser Schritt, wie bereits der Indonesische Umweltminister festtellte, fur die Nutzung und Anwendung von Krautern zahlen zu mussen, weil Shiseido ein staatlich eingetragenes Eigentumstrech besitzt. Hier ware sie dann die Frage, welche Form der Kompensation den traditionellen Haltern zufällt, wenn aiw ihren Eigentumspruch aufgeben, bzw, wie ihre Leistungen bei der Patentvergabe berucksichtigt werden. Bezuglich der Monetisterung entstehen Konflikte hinsichtlich der Gewinnverteilung einem erforlgreichen Verkauf des kommodifizierten traditionellen wissens.
p.39.

Literaturkiste
(...)
Sekundarliteratur

ISIS 2002 "No Patent No Beauty, no patent no cure?" Science in Society. Web-Ausgabe 15.

Jakarta Post (20.3.200) NGO seminar urge campaign against 'unfair' biopiracy"

Kompas (18.9.2002) Makna Keberhasilan pembatalan Paten Shiseido (Zur Bedeutung erfolgreichen Ruknahme des Shiseido-Patent). My correction (RVT) it should be dated 17.7.2002.

PAN 2001a. "Shiseido Biopiracy to traditional herbal plant Indonesia." Ferbruar 2001.

PAN 2001b. TRIPS. UU Paten dan PVT. Ancaman bagi petani. masyarakat adat dan keanekaragaman hayati [TRIPs, Patentrecht und PVT. Zur Bedrohung der Bauern, der Adat-Geselschaft und biologischen Vielfalt. ] Juli 2991

Interviews

Riza V. Tjahjadi, Vorsitzender der PAN Indonesia. Jakarta, 4 Februar 2002
===








Lost in Battle Court, Not to Shiseido' Biopiracy
from:  "Riza V. Tjahjadi"
Date:  Tue Dec 31, 2002  8:45 am
Subject:  Lost in Battle Court, Not to Shiseido' Biopiracy

Lost in Battle Court, Not to Shiseido' Biopiracy
Lost in Battle Court, Not to Shiseido' Biopiracy


Dear friends,
In closing year 2002 and to welcome 2003,
I may say, my last word, from the Indonesian context:
 

Lost in battle court for Bt cotton, but win over biopiracy by Shiseido
(as a-two year non-litigation
psywar battle field).
but
WE aware the war is still going on.

OUR struggle together with other vulnerable and marginalized groups
by corporate-driven globalisation harder and harder..!
 
 
Quotations as reflecting 2002
---
The NGO Coalition for Biosafety and Food Safety (representing six NGOs and
supported by another 72) lost its court case on September 27, 2001 against
the Indonesian government and PT Monagro Kimia over the planting of Bt cotton
in South Sulawesi. The appealing of the NGO coalition was also failed
at a higher court, in mid of 2002.
But
"Dear Riza... So, I saw that Shiseido has cancelled their patent. I looked also at EP 1002515 (WO 99/63950). It is also at the European Patent Office withdrawn since the 24.01.2002. A success for you!" as an observer said at EPO in München Germany, Aug 9 2002 11:08.
---
in 2003?
This is an indication:
"I've collected material on new patent applications at the US patent office by
the GE/seed TNCs. Over 200 new US patents and patent applications on plant genetic resources in 2002. So many new applications in the pipeline. (...)'s biopiracy is something that we will focus on in 2003."
 
Think, and re-thinking, whilst we participate in the global social movement:
Bio-piracy is already happening everywhere, not just here .... why should we have to pay for using our own traditional herbs?' Southern and indigenous groups, I hope, will be able to defend themselves against bio-piracy and GM. But on the other hand TNC's would not feed the world; bring safe food to the marketplace; pay restitution for reducing bio-diversity and fertility by 50%;*14 or compensate poisoned people's families or infertile couples. That is why billions of global citizens care about the ravages of bio-piracy and the TRIPS legislation, and some are brave enough to mobilise against economic fascism.
 
God bless us.
warm rgds,
Riza V. Tjahjadi
BioTani Indonesia Foundation/
PAN Indonesia

Jl. Persada Raya No. 1
Menteng Dalam Jakarta 12870
Indonesia
Telp& fax: +62-21-8296545
e-mail: biotani@rad.net.id
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«»«»«»«»«»«»«»

No Patent No Cure, No Patent No Beauty, No Patent No Food
They claimed,
We FIGHT for
Farmers' Right and
Community Intellectual Rights

«»«»«»«»«»«»«»



See: wto_forum • World Trade Organization Forum; wto_forum@yahoogroups.com
---





No patent no beauty, no patent no cure?

 
According to a report from Riza V. Tjahjadi of Pesticide Action Network (PAN), Japanese cosmetics company Shiseido has withdrawn patents taken out on traditional Indonesian herbs and spices following a protracted campaign by PAN Indonesia and civil rights groups. However Tjahjadi remains suspicious about what the company will do in the near future.

The use of healing herbs in Indonesia dates back to prehistoric times and knowledge of these has been passed down by word of mouth for generations. Javanese Jamu herbs are used not just to fight disease but also to restore equilibrium to the body. Recent years have seen these treatments become subject to a series of patents by the Japanese company Shiseido. A patent was placed on a hair tonic based on Cabe Jawa (Piperaceae). Another patent was placed on a medicine composed of Orang aring (Eclipta alba),

Jangkang (Sterculia Foetida), Meniran (Phyllanthuss niruri), Mrico bolong (Melaleuca leucandindra) and Temu kunci (Boesenbergia pandurata). This is just the tip of the iceberg. In 1995 alone the Japanese company placed patents on 35 plants from the region.
Both the Japanese and European Patents Offices recognised Shiseido’s claim, rewarding patents across the board.

"They’ve stolen what belongs to our traditional healers," said Tjahjadi in an interview recently, pointing out that farmers need to be educated about their rights. "We call farmers crops our traditional seeds, we say these are community intellectual rights" he added, pointing out that farmers are "stewards of the earth."

PAN reminds us that every time we buy a 50ml pot of skin-whitening cream for circa $150 (US) we are unwittingly supporting Shiseido’s corporate theft.
Sources: Pesticide Action Network. http://www.pan-uk.org
Bio-piracy, Liz Sheridan, Healthy options magazine, New Zealand.

As quoted by ISIS,
Science in Society 15 - website only, A selection of articles that simply wouldn't fit into issue 15!
The Institute of Science in Society, PO Box 32097, London NW1 OXR
telephone:   [44 20 7383 3376]   [44 20 7272 5636]
General Enquiries sam@i-sis.org.uk - Website/Mailing List press-release@i-sis.org.uk - ISIS Director m.w.ho@i-sis.org.uk
MATERIAL ON THIS SITE MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM WITHOUT PERMISSION, ON CONDITION THAT IT IS ACCREDITED ACCORDINGLY AND CONTAINS A LINK TO http://www.i-sis.org.uk/



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«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»

No Patent No Cure No Patent No Beauty
No Patent No Food
They claimed
We fight for
Farmers' Rights, and Community Intellectual Rights

«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«
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Shiseido Biopiracy to Traditional herbal plants of Indonesia


Background: The use of plants for healing in Indonesia dates back to prehistoric times. It has a long history of traditional use, handed down orally from generation to generation. The oldest and the most widespread is the jamu – an Indonesian term referring to the indigenous herbal medicine and system, which originated in Java and eventually spread to neighboring Bali and the rest of Indonesia. Recently, jamu stand for the industrial traditional herbal. Jamu is traditionally used by the Javanese not just to cure a certain disease but more so to restore equilibrium through the human body's own resistance – prevention is also another word. Among its multiple uses are the maintenance of good health, beauty care, to regulate menstruation, and weight loss.

Patent: Indonesia's herbal medicines and knowledge has become the subject of a series of Japanese patent applications by Shiseido Co. Ltd., Japan's largest beauty products company. One of the patents being sought is on hair tonic based on Cabe Jawa (Piperaceae) while another claims a composition based on a crude medicine composed of Orang aring (Eclipta alba), Jangkang (Sterculia foetida), Meniran (Phyllanthuss niruri), Mrico bolong (Melaleuca leucandindra) and Temu kunci (Boesenbergia pandurata). Both of these patents are based on the traditional medicine and knowledge of Indonesian people. In 1995 alone, more than 35 herbal plants from Indonesia have been the subjects of more than 20 patent applications by Shiseido in Japan.

Lempuyang, another popular cosmetic jamu, has also been a subject of many patents (WO09963950A1, JP10029924A, JP09169628A, JP09169627A, JP09071522A; patents as issued by Japan Patent office) for its anti-aging properties and moisture-retention properties. Already, in 1999, Shiseido successfully launched a new line of skin whitening products based on lempuyang extract.

(challenge: filling out the traditional use of some of these plants especially Cabe Jawa and Lempuyang –  as to determine whether it is the same property patented by Shiseido).

EPO (European Patent Office) also issued similar patent for Shiseido, more complete with patent holder:

Here are the European patents for your information.... (I only included the first page and the claims. The description of the field of invention is quite long. Just tell me if you want it to be sent also).

SCALP CARE COMPOSITIONS

Patent Number: EP0914816
Publication date: 1999-05-12
Inventor(s): IDETA RITSURO (JP); IFUKU OHJI (JP); KOJIMA NAO (JP);
MORIYA YOSHIKI (JP); SHIBATA YUKI (JP); SOMA TSUTOMU (JP); TSUJI
YOSHIHARU (JP)

Applicant(s): SHISEIDO CO LTD (JP)

Requested Patent: WO9852516

Application Number: EP19980919625 19980515

Priority Number(s): WO1998JP02162 19980515; JP19970144704 19970519;
JP19970207246 19970716; JP19970207248 19970716; JP19970268070 19970912; JP19970322093 19971107

Abstract
A composition for use on the scalp, a composition for promoting tyrosinase activity, and a composition for preventing gray hair which characteristically contain extracts from various plants. The composition for use on the scalp of the present invention can effectively prevent dandruff and is safe. Also, the composition for use on the scalp of the present invention is particularly effective in preventing and treating dandruff which is generated due to scalp stimulation by surfactants such as shampoos, rinses, etc. It also is highly effective at preventing scalp itching. Also, the present invention provides a composition with a superior tyrosinase activity promoting action and gray hair prevention action.

Claims

1. A composition for use on the scalp which characteristically contains one or more types of extracts chosen from among extracts of the following plants.
(1) Kayu rapet (scientific name: Parameria laevigata)
(2) Kemukus (scientific name: Piper cubeba)
(3) Tempuyung (scientific name: Sonchus arvensis L.)
(4) Belantas (scientific name: Pluchea indica L.)
(5) Mesoyi (scientific name: Massoia aromatica Becc.)
(6) Pule (scientific name: Alstonia scholaris)
(7) Pulowaras (scientific name: Alycia reindwartii BI.)
(8) Sintok (scientific name: Cinnamomum sintoc BI.)

2. The composition for use on the scalp of claim 1 wherein the blend ratio of the plant extract is 0.001-10.0 wt%.

3. A composition for use on the scalp which contains as an effective ingredient an extract from a plant of the Apocynaceae family, genus Parameria.

4. The composition for use on the scalp of claim 3 wherein the plant of genus Parameria is Parameria laevigata (Kayu rapet).

5. A composition for promoting tyrosinase activity which contains as an effective ingredient an extract from a plant of the Apocynaceae family, genus Parameria.

6. The composition for promoting tyrosinase activity of claim 5 wherein the plant of genus Parameria is Parameria laevigata (Kayu rapet).

7. A composition for preventing gray hair which contains as an effective ingredient an extract from a plant of the Apocynaceae family, genus Parameria.

8. The composition for preventing gray hair of claim 7 wherein the plant of genus Parameria is Parameria laevigata (Kayu rapet).

9. A composition for use of the scalp which contains as an effective ingredient a plant extract wherein the effective ingredient is at least one type of extract derived from a plant of a genus chosen from a group consisting of the Ericaceae family, genus Arctostaphylos, the Chenopodiaceae family, genus Chenopodium and genus Poterium and the Ericaceae family, genus Gautheria.

10. The composition for use of the scalp of claim 9 wherein the plant of the Ericaceae family, genus Arctostaphylos, is Pinguica (scientific name: Chenopodium Ambrosioides L.); the plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, genus Chenopodium, is Aritaso (in Japanese; scientific name: Chenopodium Ambrosioides L.); the plant of genus Poterium is Zapote (scientific name: Poterium Zapote); and the plant of the Ericaceae family, genus Gautheria, is Axcopaque (scientific name: Gautheria Acuminata).

11. A composition for promoting tyrosinase activity which contains as an effective ingredient a plant extract wherein the effective ingredient is at least one type of extract derived from a plant of a genus chosen from a group consisting of the Ericaceae family, genus Arctostaphylos, the Chenopodiaceae family, genus Chenopodium and genus Poterium and the Ericaceae family, genus Gautheria.
12. A composition for preventing gray hair which contains as an effective ingredient a plant extract wherein the effective ingredient is at least one type of extract derived from a plant of a genus chosen from a group consisting of the Ericaceae family, genus Arctostaphylos, the Chenopodiaceae family, genus Chenopodium and genus Poterium and the Ericaceae family, genus Gautheria.

13. The composition of claim 11 wherein the plant of the Ericaceae family, genus Arctostaphylos, is Pinguica (scientific name: Chenopodium Ambrosioides L.); the plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, genus Chenopodium, is Aritaso (in Japanese; scientific name: Chenopodium Ambrosioides L.); the plant of genus Poterium is Zapote (scientific name: Poterium Zapote); and the plant of the Ericaceae family, genus Gautheria, is Axcopaque (scientific name: Gautheria Acuminata).

14. The composition of claim 12 wherein the plant of the Ericaceae family, genus Arctostaphylos, is Pinguica (scientific name: Chenopodium Ambrosioides L.); the plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, genus Chenopodium, is Aritaso (in Japanese; scientific name: Chenopodium Ambrosioides L.); the plant of genus Poterium is Zapote (scientific name: Poterium Zapote); and the plant of the Ericaceae family, genus Gautheria, is Axcopaque (scientific name: Gautheria Acuminata).

15. A composition for use on the scalp which characteristically contains as an effective ingredient an extract from guaco misto (scientific name: Mykania Glomerata) of the Compositae family, genus Mykania.

16. A composition for promoting tyrosinase activity which contains as an effective ingredient a plant extract wherein the effective ingredient is an extract from guaco misto (scientific name: Mykania Glomerata) of the Compositae family, genus Mykania.

17. A composition for preventing gray hair which contains as an effective ingredient a plant extract wherein the effective ingredient is an extract from guaco misto (scientific name: Mykania Glomerata) of the Compositae family, genus Mykania.

18. A composition for use on the scalp which characteristically contains as an effective ingredient a Japanese pepper extract.

19. A tyrosinase activity promoting agent which contains as an effective ingredient a Japanese pepper extract.

20. The tyrosinase activity promoting agent of claim 19 wherein the tyrosinase activity promoting agent is a gray hair prevention agent.

Data supplied from the esp@cenet database - l2

You can also contact:
European Patent Office
Enlarged Board of Appeal
concerning  T1054/96 and T 356/93
80298 München Germany
Fax: (49-89) 23 99 45 60
Implications:
Some are directly referred to be used as folk medicines (traditionally known as "jamu"). Products have been developed, for example Shiseido Fine Toiletry in 1998 launched a new facial cleansing soap called "Rajam" which has been developed based on jamu folk medicine in Bali island. It contains "Jamu" made by compounding Asian herbs.

How will it impact the economy?
In global terms, the estimated market for traditional remedies is at US$2 bil, with Japan accounting for sales of US$920 mil and China US$500 mil. The market for Indonesian traditional remedies, locally known as jamu is estimated at US$150 mil  (1992) of which 20% is for premium-priced products. Indonesian herbal medicine exports totaled 2,393 tons valued at US$29 mil in 1997, vs 4,903 tons in 1996, and 1,800 tons valued at US$21.9 mil in 1994 where the top importer continues is Saudi Arabia.

Will it impact on small peoples' livelihood?
Thousands of Banyumas residents in Central Java, as one of illustrations, depend on the jamu industry for their livelihood. Currently, rough estimation, at least 6,000 people are employed by about 400 jamu enterprises in Cilacap and Banyumas. Again, this one of examples.

In Central Java as centre of jamu industry, as reported by Bisnis Indonesia (24 January 2001).  officially recorded around 95 enterprises, but in real activities only 50 enterprises. By classification, there are 6 big companies, with 7 medium enterprises, small scale 78, and simplisia 2 companies; all locates in Semarang, Kedu,  Surakarta, Pati, Tegal Cilacap and Kedu.

How will it impact on long held culture?
Herbal medicine had been used since the ancient time and continues to be consumed by people of different level; lower, middle and upper, in the villages and in the big cities. One could buy easily ready made jamu packed modernly in the form of powder, pills, capsules, drinking liquid and ointments. There are still jamu street vendor or tiny shops, which sell only ingredients or prepare the jamu on spot as required by buyers. Some women still roam in the street - peddled remedies (jamu Gendong) or may use motorcycles or push carts - to sell ready to drink jamu, a common view across the country. The traditional methods of making jamu such as by boiling the prepared herbal ingredients (jamu godok) still prevail in Javanese society. The popular traditional tools of making jamu are still available in many Javanese houses.

The traditional medicine system in Indonesia is shaped by its wealth of biological and cultural diversity. Jamu flourished because of a dynamic system of exchanges of new knowledge and uses of herbal medicines between various cultural groups. The imposition of private ownership and commodification of these resources and knowledge disrupts the traditional medical systems in place. Plants and even jamu formulations have been collected, knowledge have been extracted and patented for the benefit of a few stockholders and later on further worked on and sold to those able to pay the price. In spite of the availability of modern medicine, still more than 70% of Indonesian people depend heavily on jamu. Presently, it plays an important component of Indonesia's national health care system. It also plays a major role in the economy, creating job opportunities especially in the rural areas, especially during the multi dimensional crisis since July 1997.
    (foresee to be the possible impact on the health care system, figured out whether they collected materials from Indonesia and whether they did it in compliance with CBD i.e. prior informed consent and benefit sharing)

Additional info:
Classification according IUCN in Rifai 1983, divided into five category: Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare, Indeterminate.
Sintox (cinnamomum sintox), for example, was classified rare in 1990 (Sudiarto, 1990). Other plants are examining.


Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

Article 27: Patentable Subject Matter
3. Members may also exclude from patentability: (b) plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However, Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

There are extraordinary problems with Article 27.3(b) of the TRIPS Agreement:

•    No parameters for what a 'sui generis' system can amount to.
•    No parameters for what is 'effective'.
•    Many WTO members have expressed their view that genes and microbiological processes are not inventions and therefore are not patentable subject matter.
•    With its lack of any benefit-sharing mechanism, TRIPS offers no remedy for the ongoing wave of biopiracy and is perceived as exacerbating the problem.
•    There is a bias ingrained in TRIPS to protect breeders and biotechnologists at the expense of farmers and local communities.
•    Many countries perceive a conflict between TRIPS and the rights and obligations countries previously acquired under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

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Riza V. Tjahjadi
PAN Indonesia
Jl. Persada Raya No. 1 Menteng Dalam Jakarta 12870 Indonesia
Telp & fax: (021) 8296545; e-mail: biotani@rad.net.id
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Information above was last part of  Riza V. Tjahjadi (20021) Shiseido Biopiracy to traditional herbal plants of Indonesia. SHISEIDO Feature article: BIO_PIRACY/LIZ SHERIDAN. in http://www.healthyoptiops.co.nz. A brochure circulated during the ASEAN Workshop on the TRIPS Agreement and Traditional Medicine13 February 2001, Jakarta.

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8 Years Later (since my campaign in 1999)

Biothai start Campaign Against Shiseido


Subject:   Shiseido_Campaign-Against_Info_Kit; Re: BASA & etc.
From:   "RIZA V. TJAHJADI"
Date:   Wed, February 14, 2007 12:59
To:   "Witoon Lianchamroon" Cc:   biotani2004a@yahoo.com
Priority:   High
Mailer:   SquirrelMail/1.4.3a


Halo Witoon,

please, find, attached information that may useful to your advocacy work
against Shiseido.

take care,

Riza VT

Riza V. Tjahjadi
Biotani Indonesia Foundation
Jl. Persada Raya No. 1
Menteng Dalam
Jakarta 12870 Indonesia
Telp. +62-21-8296545
email: biotani@rad.net.id, biotani2004a@yahoo.com
http://www.biotani.org


> Hi Riza,
>
> I just came from BASA meeting. Day-cha still stay there until 14 Feb.
> It's bad that you can't come while there are 5 PEAC staffs in the meeting
> !
> May be we can talk this later when we meet.
>
> Another story, I remember you have distributed the Shisedo & biopiracy in
> Indonesia.
> They have set up the cooperation project with Biotec in Thailand.
> Could you send me some info about the company's activities in Indonesia ?
>
> Thanks,
> Witoon
>

Download this as a file
 
Attachments: 
Biopiracy_Shiseido-19Feb2001-&-Update2002.pdf  497 k  


From: "Witoon Lianchamroon" To: biotani2004a@yahoo.com
Subject: Re: PEAC, What?; Re: BASA & etc.
Date: Tue, 13 Feb 2007 22:25:19 +0700
   

Hi Riza,

We have discussed about the membership of BASA, and the situation of PEAC is still pending as we have agreed in the beginning that the new comer should be approved unanimously by all members . Let's see the minute from Shalinee.

Yes ! I would like to follow Shiseido-BIOTEC coopertion in Thailand, but did Shiseido do like this before in Indonesia ? What's the people react on this development ?

Best,
Witoon

----- Original Message -----
From: "RIZA V. TJAHJADI"
To: "Witoon Lianchamroon" Cc:
Sent: Tuesday, February 13, 2007 9:58 PM
Subject: PEAC, What?; Re: BASA & etc.


> Halo Witoon,
>
> what you mean PEAC, pesticide environment action coalition?
> So, the meeting was Basa Plus, or what?
>
> Then, shiseido, you mean, below?
>
> Shiseido Research Forum: The Cutting-edge Biological Research on Cosmetics
> On 8 February 2007, BIOTEC and Shiseido co-hosted more...








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